The hand-to-hand fighting in this little skirmish was the fiercest I ever saw. In many instances when the firing from the windows was stopped by the volleys poured into them from the streets, the inmates still refused to surrender, and the details of my men who broke down the doors and entered were compelled to kill all they found inside. Morgan killed seven men with his own hand, and was himself killed before the house he entered was taken. In some houses l saw blood dripping down the stairways.
My loss was 21 men killed and 18 wounded. The combat lasted not more than fifteen minutes after I entered the town; but my loss, the number of prisoners, and especially the fact that I had nearly exhausted my ammunition, decided me not to cross the Ohio and carry out the movement on Cincinnati I had contemplated. I know, also, that or Federal troops at Maysville, not far distant, would be ordered immediately to Augusta, and that my return by that point would be intercepted. Wilson, nine miles from Augusta; but the affair was trifling, the loss on either side slight, and I carried off my prisoners.
Four or five days afterward I was ordered to return to Lexington. Morgan had been sent to eastern Kentucky, as I have said, to intercept the retreat of the Federal general, George W. He did not find Marshall in the vicinity where he was instructed to seek him, nor, indeed, at all. Learning that the Federal column was moving from Manchester via Booneville to Mount Sterling, doubtless to reach the Ohio at Maysville, Colonel Morgan expected to strike the enemy between Booneville and Mount Sterling.
But General Morgan concentrated at Irvine on the 21st, and moved toward Proctor.
The Confederate cavalry then moved as rapidly as the mountainous country permitted, and receiving further information that the enemy had turned to the right and was at Campton, in Wolfe County, succeeded in getting directly in his front near Hazel Green. From the 25th of September until the 1st of October every effort was made to arrest or delay the Federal retreat.
The roads were barricaded, the column was attacked in front and flank, and the skirmishing was continuous. During that time the enemy progressed only thirty miles; nevertheless, John Morgan received no aid as promised him, nor did Stevenson overtake the Federal commander and force him to battle. At noon, October the lat, Colonel Morgan received orders to withdraw from the enemy's front, and rejoin General Smith "at Lexington, or wherever he might be.
I reported to him there the next day. The town was about to be evacuated, and General Smith's entire army, Stevenson having arrived, was marching to effect a junction with Bragg. We left Lexington on the 6th, and until the 10th were employed in preventing the debouehment of Sill's and Dumont's divisions Federal from the rough country west of Frankfort, where they were demonstrating to induce Bragg to believe that Buell's attack would be delivered from that direction when the letter had in reality marched to Perryville. After General Bragg had moved from Munfordville to Bardstown, the entire Confederate strategic line, including the disposition of the forces under General Smith, may be described as extending from Bardstown on the left flank, via Lexington, to Mount Sterling on the extreme right.
It was one admirably adapted for defense. However threatened, the troops could be marched to the point menaced by excellent interior roads, and favorable ground for battle was available wherever attack was probable. The base at Bryantsville was secure, and was an exceedingly strong natural position. The aggregate strength of the Confederate armies was little, if any, less than 61, men.
On October 1st Buell moved out of Louisville with 58, effective men, of whom 22, were raw troops. Under the impression that Buell was about to throw his entire army upon Smith at Frankfort, Bragg, on the 2d, ordered Polk to march with the Army of the Mississippi from Bardstown via Bloomfield toward Frankfort in order that he might strike the enemy in rear, while Kirby Smith should assail him in front. Until the 7th he remained apparently under the impression that Buell was advancing to attack Smith.
But on the evening of the 7th, Gilbert, in command of Buell's center, came in contact with Hardee near Perryville, and compelled him to prepare for action. Hardee called for reinforcements, and Cheatham's division was sent him, while the remainder of Polk's corps continued its march toward Versailles with the view of joining the forces under General Smith. It thus happened that General Bragg, completely misled by the more demonstration upon Frankfort, kept more then two-thirds of the entire force under his control idly maneuvering in a quarter where nothing could possibly be accomplished, and permitted less than 20, men to become engaged upon a field where more than 45, of the enemy could have been hurled upon them.
Buell's whole army with the exception of the divisions of Sill and Dumont - altogether 10, or 12, strong was concentrated at Perryville on the 8th, and but for the unaccountable circumstance that McCook had been fighting several hours before Buell was informed that a battle was in progress, the Confederate line would have been overwhelmed by an attack in force.
If such had been the result at Perryville on the 8th, and Buell had then gotten between the scattered remnants of the troops that opposed him there, as he would almost surely have done, he would have been master of the situation, and nothing but disaster could have befallen the Confederates. For on the 9th Sill and Dumont were marching to rejoin the main body, and in another day Buell could have had his entire 58, - minus the loss sustained in the battle - well in hand.
After Perryville, Morgan was ordered to rejoin the army, when everything was concentrated at Harrodsburg, as if for a battle which General Bragg could have won but never meant to fight. When the army, leaving Harrodsburg, without battle, began its retreat to Tennessee, Morgan, assisted by Col. Henry Ashby with a small brigade of cavalry, was employed in covering its rear. This rear-guard was engaged very arduously, and almost constantly, in contact with Buell's advance regiments until the 17th.
At that date Morgan received permission to retrace his march, capture Lexington, which was, of course, in the hands of the enemy, and then move southward, directly across Buell's rear, doing the latter all possible damage. Marching rapidly for twenty-four hours, he reached Lexington at dawn of the following morning, and immediately attacked the 4th Ohio Cavalry, which was encamped at Ashland - once the residence of Henry Clay - about two miles from the city.
The enemy was defeated after a short combat, and nearly six hundred were made prisoners. The loss in killed and wounded on either side was slight. Resuming his march at noon that day, Morgan encamped on the following night at Shryock's ferry on the Kentucky River. At midnight he was attacked by Dumont, and fearing that he would be surrounded and entrapped in the rugged hills of that region, he marched with all speed for Lawrenceburg, four miles distant, reaching and passing through that little town just as a heavy Federal column, sent to intercept him there, was entering it upon the Frankfort turnpike.
Passing around Bardstown on the next day, we encamped between that place and Elizabethtown. We were now directly in Buell's rear, and during the next twenty-four hours captured many laggards, and several wagon trains - one quite large and richly laden.
From the 20th to the 25th of October Morgan continued to march in a south-western direction, reaching Hopkinsville on the 25th. Here he had entirely passed beyond the zone of Federal garrisons in middle Kentucky, but still had arduous work before him in Tennessee and in front of Nashville, whither Buell, having turned aside from pursuit of Bragg through the mountains of south-eastern Kentucky, was now directing his course.
After a short sojourn at Hopkinsville for much-needed rest, Colonel Morgan moved directly to Gallatin, Tennessee, with a view of completing the destruction of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad in that vicinity, and to that extent impeding the transportation of troops and supplies to Nashville. While engaged in this work he received orders from General John C. Breckinridge, who was stationed with a small infantry force at Murfreesboro', to converge with Forrest in a movement intended to effect the destruction of the rolling-stock of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad Company collected at Edgefield, on the bank of the Cumberland River, opposite Nashville.
At Corydon, Indiana, the raiders met local Home Guard in a battle that resulted in eleven Confederates killed and five Home Guard killed. In July, at Versailles, IN, while soldiers raided nearby militia and looted county and city treasuries, the jewels of the local masonic lodge were stolen. When Morgan, a Freemason , learned of the theft he recovered the jewels and returned them to the lodge the following day. After several more skirmishes, during which he captured and paroled thousands of Union soldiers [ citation needed ] , Morgan's raid almost ended on July 19, , at Buffington Island , Ohio , when approximately of his men were captured while trying to cross the Ohio River into West Virginia.
Intercepted by Union gunboats, less than of his men succeeded in crossing.
Most of Morgan's men captured that day spent the rest of the war in the infamous Camp Douglas Prisoner of War camp in Chicago , which had a very high death rate. On July 26, near Salineville, Ohio , Morgan and his exhausted, hungry and saddlesore soldiers were finally forced to surrender.
It was the farthest north that any uniformed Confederate troops would penetrate during the war. On November 27, Morgan and six of his officers, most notably Thomas Hines , escaped from their cells in the Ohio Penitentiary by digging a tunnel from Hines' cell into the inner yard and then ascending a wall with a rope made from bunk coverlets and a bent poker iron. Morgan and three of his officers, shortly after midnight, boarded a train from the nearby Columbus train station and arrived in Cincinnati that morning.
Morgan and Hines jumped from the train before reaching the depot, and escaped into Kentucky by hiring a skiff to take them across the Ohio River. Through the assistance of sympathizers, they eventually made it to safety in the South. Coincidentally, the same day Morgan escaped, his wife gave birth to a daughter, who died shortly afterwards before Morgan returned home.
Morgan's Cavalry During the Bragg Invasion by Basil W. Duke - Kindle edition by Basil W. Duke. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones. of 26 results for Books: "Basil W. Duke" . Morgan's Cavalry During the Bragg Invasion by Basil W. Duke. Feb 2, by Basil W. Duke.
Though Morgan's Raid was breathlessly followed by the Northern and Southern press and caused the Union leadership considerable concern, it is now regarded as little more than a showy but ultimately futile sidelight to the war. Furthermore, it was done in direct violation of his orders from General Braxton Bragg not to cross the river. Despite the raiders' best efforts, Union forces had amassed nearly , militia in Illinois, Indiana and Ohio; dozens of United States Navy gunboats along the Ohio ; and strong Federal cavalry forces, which doomed the raid from the beginning.
The cost of the raid to the Federals was extensive, with claims for compensation still being filed against the U. However, the Confederacy's loss of Morgan's light cavalry far outweighed the benefits.
He had entered Kentucky with less than electives his command when he returned to Tennessee was nearly strong. During that time the enemy progressed only thirty miles; nevertheless, John Morgan received no aid as promised him, nor did Stevenson overtake the Federal commander and force him to battle. Under the impression that Buell was about to throw his entire army upon Smith at Frankfort, Bragg, on the 2d, ordered Polk to march with the Army of the Mississippi from Bardstown via Bloomfield toward Frankfort in order that he might strike the enemy in rear, while Kirby Smith should assail him in front. From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine. It thus happened that General Bragg, completely misled by the more demonstration upon Frankfort, kept more then two-thirds of the entire force under his control idly maneuvering in a quarter where nothing could possibly be accomplished, and permitted less than 20, men to become engaged upon a field where more than 45, of the enemy could have been hurled upon them. Morgan killed seven men with his own hand, and was himself killed before the house he entered was taken. Morgan also hired out his slaves and occasionally sold them.
After his return from Ohio, Morgan returned to active duty. However, the men he was assigned were in no way comparable to those he had lost. Morgan once again began raiding into Kentucky. However his men lacked discipline, and he was unwilling or unable to control them, leading to open pillaging along with high casualties. The raids of this season were in risky defiance of a strategic situation in the border states that had changed radically from the year before. Union military occupation of this region, long denied to major Confederate armies, had progressed to the point that even highly mobile raiders could no longer count on easily evading them.
Northern public outrage at Morgan's raid across the Ohio River may well have contributed to this state of affairs. After winning a minor victory on June 11 against an inferior infantry unit in the engagement known as the Battle of Keller's Bridge on the Licking River , near Cynthiana, Kentucky , Morgan decided to take a chance the following day on another contest against superior Union mounted forces that were known to be approaching.
The result was a disaster for the Confederates, resulting in the destruction of Morgan's force as a cohesive unit, only a small fraction of whom escaped with their lives and liberty as fugitives, including the General and some of his officers. After the flashy but unauthorized Ohio raid, Morgan was never again trusted by General Bragg. Nevertheless, on August 22, , Morgan was placed in command of the Trans-Allegheny Department, embracing at the time the Confederate forces in eastern Tennessee and southwestern Virginia.
Yet around this time some Confederate authorities were quietly investigating Morgan for charges of criminal banditry, [ citation needed ] likely leading to his removal from command. He began to organize a raid aimed at Knoxville, Tennessee. On September 4, , he was surprised by a Union attack and was shot in the back and killed by Union cavalrymen while attempting to escape during a raid on Greeneville, Tennessee.
Morgan was buried in Lexington Cemetery. The burial was shortly before the birth of his second child, another daughter.
South Ripley High School in Versailles Indiana, the location of a skirmish with Morgan's Raiders, named their mascot the Raiders in honor of his campaign across Indiana. Also, a large mural in the town depicts Morgan. The Hunt-Morgan House , once his home, is a contributing property in a historic district in Lexington. Route 11 in Abingdon, Virginia , is named after him.
Route 27 in Cynthiana, Kentucky , is named after him. The General Morgan Inn, located at the spot he was killed in Greeneville, Tennessee, is named after him. A statue was erected in Pomeroy, Ohio, for the effect he had on the town and its people. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named John Morgan, see John Morgan disambiguation. American Civil War portal Biography portal. It is said that he was a lineal descendant of Daniel Morgan, of Revolutionary fame. Daniel Morgan Continental Army. Daniel Morgan is related to the famous Welsh privateer and pirate, Henry Morgan.
Henry was Daniel's great-great-grandfather Edward Morgan's nephew. Goodly Heritage Grand Lodge of Indiana , pg. From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine. Rebecca Gratz Bruce , accessed July Archived July 14, , at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 29 July Thompson of East Liverpool which states: Morgan surrendered his command to Major General George W.
Rue, July 26, , and this is the farthest point north ever reached by any body of Confederate troops during the Civil War. Combatants Theaters Campaigns Battles States. Army Navy Marine Corps. Chronology of military events in the American Civil War. Smith Stuart Taylor Wheeler.