The Hospital Financing Law secured the supply of hospitals and reduced the cost of hospital care, "defined the financing of hospital investment as a public responsibility, single states to issue plans for hospital development, and the federal government to bear the cost of hospital investment covered in the plans, rates for hospital care thus based on running costs alone, hospitals to ensure that public subsidies together with insurance fund payments for patients cover total costs". In addition, funding for new rehabilitation facilities was increased.
The reform also replaced 65 as the mandatory retirement age with a "retirement window" ranging between 63 and 65 for employees who had worked for at least thirty-five years. Employees who qualified as disabled and had worked for at least thirty-five years were extended a more generous retirement window, which ranged between the ages of 60 and Women who had worked for at least fifteen years ten of which had to be after the age of age 40 and the long-term unemployed were also granted the same retirement window as the disabled. In addition, there were no benefit reductions for employees who had decided to retire earlier than the age of Voluntary retirement at 63 with no deductions in the level of benefits was introduced,  together with the index-linking of war victim's pensions to wage increases.
In education, the Brandt Administration sought to widen educational opportunities for all West Germans. The government presided over an increase in the number of teachers,  generous public stipends were introduced for students to cover their living costs,  and West German universities were converted from elite schools into mass institutions.
Grants were also made in certain cases for attendance at training centres located outside the Federal Republic. The number of university students went up from , to ,, 30, more places were created in the schools, and an additional 1, million marks was allocated for new school buildings. In the field of housing, various measures were carried out to benefit householders, such as in improving the rights of tenants and increasing rental assistance. By , three times as much was paid out in rent subsidies as in , and nearly one and a half million households received rental assistance.
In addition, the income limits for eligibility for social housing were raised and adapted in order of general income trends. A loose form of rent regulation was introduced under the name of "Vergleichmieten" 'comparable rents' ,  together with the provision of "for family-friendly housing" freight or rent subsidies to owners of apartments or houses whose ceiling had been adapted to increased expenses or incomes Under this legislation, notice was to be ruled illegal "where appropriate substitute accommodation not available; landlords obliged to specify reasons for notice,"  whilst the Eviction Protection Law established tenant protection against rent rises and notice.
The notice was only lawful if in the "justified interest of the landlord. Under this new law, the notice was only lawful where the landlord proved justified personal interest in the apartment. In addition, rent increases were only lawful if not above normal comparable rents in the same area. Directives on the housing of foreign workers came into force in April These directives imposed certain requirements for space, hygiene, safety, and amenities in the accommodation offered by employers.
In , the Federal Labour Office made available DM million in the form of loans to provide beds in 2 hostels. A year later, the Federal Government Bund , the Lander and the Federal Labour Office promoted the construction of dwellings for migrant workers.
They set aside 10 million DM for this purpose, which allowed the financing of family dwellings that year. Development measures were begun in with federal financial aid granted to the Lander for improvement measures relating to towns and villages, and in the budget, DM 50 million was earmarked, i. A council for urban development was formed in May with the purpose of promoting future work and measures in the field of urban renovation. In regards to civil rights, the Brandt Administration introduced a broad range of socially liberal reforms aimed at making West Germany a more open society.
Greater legal rights for women were introduced, as exemplified by the standardisation of pensions, divorce laws, regulations governing use of surnames, and the introduction of measures to bring more women into politics. A number of reforms were also carried out to the armed forces,  as characterised by a reduction in basic military training from 18 to 15 months, a reorganisation of education and training, and personnel and procurement procedures.
The expense allowance for troops on duty-related absence from place of employment was improved, together with travel subsidies and provisions for military service damaged soldiers and their families. A women's policy machinery at the national level was established in  while amnesty was guaranteed in minor offences connected with demonstrations. Legislation aimed at safeguarding consumers was also implemented under the Brandt Administration. The consumer's right of withdrawal in case of hire purchase was strengthened in March ,  and fixed prices for branded products were abolished by law in January that same year, which meant that manufacturers' recommended prices were not binding for retailers.
An Act of December on the peaceful use of nuclear energy and protection against its dangers was amended by an Act of June that established a tax levied for the costs for permissions and surveillance measures. In terms of working conditions, a number of reforms were introduced aimed at strengthening the rights of workers both at home and in the workplace.
The Sickness Act of provided equal treatment of workers and employees in the event of incapacity for work,  while maternity leave was increased. Previously, payment of employer's supplement and sick pay were only made from the day on which the doctor certified unfitness for work. Improvements were also made in income and work conditions for home workers,  accident insurance was extended to non-working adults,  and the Border Zone Assistance Act increased levels of assistance to the declining zonal peripheral area.
A ministerial order of January extended protection in cases of partial unemployment to home workers, while an ordinance of August fixed the conditions of health necessary for service in the merchant navy. A general provision of October determined in detail the circumstances in which the competent authority must take action on the basis of the act on the technical means of work.
In September , an ordinance was published concerning dangerous working materials; safeguarding persons using these materials against the dangers involved. In August , a law came into force directed at reducing atmospheric pollution from lead compounds in four-stroke engine fuels. As a safeguard against radiation, a decree on the system of authorisations for medicaments treated with ionizing radiation or containing radioactive substances, in its version of 8 August , was remodelled by a new Decree of 10 May which added some radionuclides to the list of medicaments which doctors in private practice were authorized to use.
Amongst its designated tasks included the promotion of industrial protection, accident prevention on the journey to and from work and accident prevention in the home and leisure activities, the encouragement of training and advanced training in the area of industrial protection, and to promote and coordinate accident research. A regulation was issued in which permitted for the first time the employment of women as drivers of trams, omnibuses and lorries, while further regulations laid down new provisions for lifts and work with compressed air. The Works Constitution Act of required in cases of collective dismissal at an establishment normally employing more than twenty employees that management and the works council must negotiate a social plan that stipulates compensation for workers who lose their jobs.
In cases where the two parties could not agree on a social plan, the law provided for binding arbitration. A law of January on the organization of labour in enterprises significantly extended the works council's right of cooperation and co-management in the matter of vocational training. That same year, the Safety Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany was transformed into a public Federal Agency Bundesanstalt with significantly enlarged powers, in the context of which special emphasis would be placed on its new task of promoting and coordinating research in the area of accident prevention.
Employers who failed to do so were assessed DM per month for every job falling before the required quota. These compensatory payments were used to "subsidise the adaptation of workplaces to the requirements of those who were severely handicapped. A law passed in January , designed to protect members of the supervisory boards of companies who are undergoing training, was aimed at ensuring that the representatives of young workers and youthful members of works councils still undergoing training could perform their duties with greater independence and without fear of disadvantageous consequences for their future careers.
On request, workers' representatives on completion of their training courses had to have an employment relationship of unlimited duration. A federal environmental programme was established in ,  and in laws were passed to regulate garbage elimination and air pollution via emission. Under the Brandt Administration, West Germany attained a lower rate of inflation than in other industrialised countries at that time,  while a rise in the standard of living took place, helped by the floating and revaluation of the mark.
Brandt's Ostpolitik led to a meltdown of the narrow majority Brandt's coalition enjoyed in the Bundestag. On 24 April a constructive vote of no confidence was proposed and it was voted on three days later. On paper, the opposition now had votes, just one over the needed to oust Brandt. Even Brandt himself believed he was finished, and a number of unions went on strike in anticipation of Brandt's expected defeat on the floor of the Bundestag. To everyone's surprise, the motion failed: Barzel got only votes out of votes cast, two short of what he needed to become Chancellor.
There were also 10 votes against the motion and three invalid ballots. After German reunification , it emerged that the Stasi had bribed several CDU deputies to abstain from the confidence vote, since East Berlin saw a need for Brandt to stay in power.
Though Brandt remained chancellor, he had lost his majority. Subsequent initiatives in parliament, most notably on the budget, failed. Because of this stalemate, the Bundestag was dissolved and new elections were called. During the campaign, many popular West German artists, intellectuals, writers, actors and professors supported Brandt and the SPD.
Brandt's Ostpolitik as well as his reformist domestic policies were popular with parts of the young generation and he led the SPD to its best-ever federal election result in late The Willy-Wahl , Brandt's landslide win was the beginning of the end; and Brandt's role in government started to decline.
The spirit of reformist optimism was cut short by the oil crisis and the major public services strike , which gave Germany's trade unions, led by Heinz Kluncker , a big wage increase but reduced Brandt's financial leeway for further reforms. Brandt was said to be more a dreamer than a manager and was personally haunted by depression. To counter any notions about being sympathetic to Communism or soft on left-wing extremists, Brandt implemented tough legislation that barred "radicals" from public service Radikalenerlass.
Brandt was asked to continue working as usual, and he agreed to do so, even taking a private vacation with Guillaume. Guillaume was arrested on 24 April , and many [ who? Brandt resigned from his position as chancellor on 6 May , but he remained a member of the Bundestag and chairman of the Social Democrats through This espionage affair is widely considered to have been just the trigger for Brandt's resignation, not the fundamental cause.
As Brandt himself later said, "I was exhausted, for reasons which had nothing to do with the affair [the Guillaume espionage scandal] going on at the time. Wolf stated after the reunification that the resignation of Brandt had never been intended, and that the planting and handling of Guillaume had been one of the largest mistakes of the East German secret services. For the rest of his life, Brandt remained suspicious that his fellow Social Democrat and longtime rival Herbert Wehner had been scheming for Brandt's downfall.
After his term as the Chancellor, Brandt retained his seat in the Bundestag , and he remained the Chairman of the Social Democratic Party through Beginning in , Brandt stepped down to become the Honorary Chairman of the party. Brandt was also a member of the European Parliament from to For sixteen years, Brandt was the president of the Socialist International —92 , during which period the number of Socialist International's mainly European member parties grew until there were more than a hundred socialist, social democratic, and labour political parties around the world.
However, in early , a dispute arose about what Carlsson perceived as the SI president's authoritarian approach. Carlsson then rebuked Brandt saying: Next, against some vocal opposition, Brandt decided to move the next Socialist International Congress from Sydney, Australia to Portugal. Following this SI Congress in April , Brandt retaliated against Carlsson by forcing him to step down from his position. During Willy Brandt's presidency the SI developed activities and dialogue on a number of International issues. This concerned the East-West conflict and arms race where the SI held high level consultations with the leaderships of the United States and the Soviet Union.
The SI also developed active contacts to promote dialogue concerning regional conflicts.
This produced a report in , which called for drastic changes in the global attitude towards development in the Third World. This became known as the Brandt Report. Bahro and his supporters were attacked by the East German state security organization Stasi , headed by Erich Mielke , for his writings, which had laid the theoretical foundation of a left-wing opposition to the ruling SED party and its dependent allies, and which promoted new and changed parties. All of this is now described as "change from within". Brandt had asked for Bahro's release, and Brandt welcomed Bahro's theories, which advanced the debate within his own Social Democratic Party.
In late , Brandt became one of the first leftwing leaders in West Germany to publicly favor a quick reunification of Germany, instead of some sort of two-state federation or other kind of interim arrangement. Brandt's public statement "Now grows together what belongs together," was widely quoted in those days.
One of Brandt's last public appearances was in flying to Baghdad , Iraq , to free Western hostages held by Saddam Hussein , following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in Brandt secured the release of a large number of them, and on 9 November , his airplane landed with freed hostages on board at the Frankfurt Airport. Willy Brandt died of colon cancer at his home in Unkel , a town on the River Rhine , on 8 October , at the age of It serves to honor the memory of Brandt's political accomplishments and his commitment to peace, freedom and democracy.
The foundation runs two permanent exhibitions: Other works of the foundation include oversight of Brandt's papers, speeches and letters the Berlin Edition , historical research as well as organizing lectures and international conferences. One of the buildings of the European Parliament in Brussels was named after him in Secretary of state Henry Kissinger.
A private German-language secondary school in Warsaw , Poland, is also named after Brandt. The main boulevard on the north entrance to Montenegrin capital Podgorica was named Willy Brandt Boulevard in The lamp now stands on the wall of Westcott Lodge , facing Furnival Gardens , with a commemorative plaque below it. Even though Willy Brandt had only served 5 years in office as Chancellor of Germany , he remains as one of the most popular politicians in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany. They had a daughter, Ninja Brandt born in Hansen and Brandt had three sons: After 32 years of marriage, Willy Brandt and Rut Hansen Brand divorced in , and from the day that they were divorced they never saw each other again.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the German politician. For people with similar name, see William Brandt disambiguation. Social justice Democracy economic industrial representative Labor rights Mixed economy Welfare Trade unionism Fair trade Environmental protection Negative and positive rights Secularism Social corporatism Social market economy.
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