Wormholes were first theorized in , though that wasn't what they were called at the time. While reviewing another physicist's solution to the equations in Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity, Austrian physicist Ludwig Flamm realized another solution was possible. He described a "white hole," a theoretical time reversal of a black hole. Entrances to both black and white holes could be connected by a space-time conduit.
In , Einstein and physicist Nathan Rosen used the theory of general relativity to elaborate on the idea, proposing the existence of "bridges" through space-time. These bridges connect two different points in space-time, theoretically creating a shortcut that could reduce travel time and distance. The shortcuts came to be called Einstein-Rosen bridges, or wormholes. Wormholes contain two mouths, with a throat connecting the two. The mouths would most likely be spheroidal. The throat might be a straight stretch, but it could also wind around, taking a longer path than a more conventional route might require.
Einstein's theory of general relativity mathematically predicts the existence of wormholes, but none have been discovered to date. A negative mass wormhole might be spotted by the way its gravity affects light that passes by. Certain solutions of general relativity allow for the existence of wormholes where the mouth of each is a black hole. However, a naturally occurring black hole, formed by the collapse of a dying star, does not by itself create a wormhole.
Science fiction is filled with tales of traveling through wormholes. Our attention is drawn first to the center with Androm- than a sequence of episodes from one particular event. The rough triangular shape of the rocks leads the eye where one begins and the other ends frequently depends on next to the large and lighter-colored Ketos, the sea monster, one's point of view. For example, the entire Column of Trajan rearing up on the lower left, and then to the smaller figure of can be viewed as depicting one event, the Dacian Wars, with Cassiopeia, Andromeda's mother, on the lower right.
Only numerous episodes, or it can be broken up into a series of later do we notice Perseus flying in from the left with the events, such as various campaigns, which can in turn be harpe raised in his right hand and the Gorgon's head, not divided into episodes. Andromeda to the right, to the small scene of Perseus being Late Etruscan funerary urns, the so-called Homeric bowls, received by Cepheus, Andromeda's father, standing outside and illustrations of ancient texts together form the battle- his palace with another building farther off.
Theseus has been chosen because no cycle vases exist for Herakles dides and today,see Woodman as in n. For example, rapidity is simply additive in the collinear velocity-addition formula; : Thomas'sbook is more interesting for my purposes because of its close mine, seeJane Henle, GreekMyths: Both conventions are widely used within the field of study. Concepts in physics Spacetime Theory of relativity.
That both figures ground over which scholars have fought about continuous represent Perseus is clear from their identical accoutrement, narrative. Moreover, if Perseus is being duel between the sons of Oedipus, Eteocles and Polyneices. If he meets Cepheus after the freeing, then the scene Polyneices,"61 as on an Etruscan sarcophagus in the Vatican.
The ambiguity is conscious, It by no means follows, however, that two warriors preparing for the artist is interested in telling what happened where. First, whenever two warriors daughter, and one representation would suffice for both are fighting in an Attic vase painting, they are typically called actions.
Thus, one unified setting is used to portray different Achilles and Memnon on as much basis, unfortunately, as they parts of one tale. The story is told not through time but across are called Eteocles and Polyneices on the Etruscan urns. The difference in approaches lies in in which each and every stage of the death was drawn like a differing concepts of what time is and how it passes.
The question of whether space and time are discrete or continuous, and Quantum mechanics is the idea that, if you go down to a small. A Small Time/Space Discontinuum () on IMDb: Movies, TV, Celebs, and more.
In full set of movie stills. I do not realized that time means duration. A bowl in London, for example, portrays scenes notice that movement has indeed occurred in a pictorial from Euripides' Phoenician Womenwith Antigone and Creon representation is to change the setting, even if that physical each repeated twice in different episodes and with a doorway, setting is only implied, as in most Greek representations.
A on the right, indicating the entrance to the palace Fig. Similarly, on a cup in Halle and Athens they are be that a fixed point or object, a whole background, or again depicted only once, but this time after they have killed anything else. We cannot perceive nor can we imagine motion each other Fig. In contrast today we expect both the The Homeric bowls do show a varying setting with repeat- background and the figures to repeat, as they do in strip ing figures, as just described.
Instead, I believe that they were among the first to be literate and, in would like to suggest that the classical idea of continuous fact, reveled in that literacy. For example, one of the most narrative had its birth not in manuscript illustrations, the striking characteristics of the Francois vase is the neat little cycle vases with Theseus, or even in the metopes on temples, inscriptions that label notjust people but even things like the but in either monumental friezes or monumental wall paint- fountain house Fig.
Thus, we know that the funeral from the fifth century B.
That artists are literate should not be all that Delphi. The Literacy has a number of effects on artists and their whole description on the surface resembles the Theseus cups, productions, and these effects vary over time and between with a conglomeration of related events.
Yet when the whole is cultures. Here I can only allude to one effect that involves the physically drawn, it can easily be seen that Pausanias has told current topic of pictorial narrative. The more accustomed we the story backward by starting on his right with the end point are to reading narratives in sequence the more we expect to in time, the departure of the Greeks, and ending with the find such sequences. The modern inundation of print has beginning, the last throes of the destruction of Troy.
In other forced us to develop not just the ability but also the desire to words, the painting shows not simultaneous events but rather process sequentially to a far greater extent than in antiquity. In fact, the painting presages Lucretius: As the King of Hearts said, stories matter or in the same sense as space. Rather, you should should proceed from the beginning directly to the end. It is not how the representation of Perseus and Andromeda from that I claim that the Greeks and the Romans had no sense of Boscotrecase works.
It might seem that I have contradicted myself in positing a sequence. One can consider the begats of Homer or Hesiod, which work well within single families but do not Greek origin for continuous narrative in the fifth century march together through time. I have examined what seem B. The contradiction is easily resolved because, as certain patterns, which I have called "hierarchical" and I have stressed, landscape is not the same thing as "place" or "spatial" time.
I have also suggested that one of the major "setting. You can show Achilles dragging Hector's body around the city of Troy comparatively rare and certainly comparatively new, with the without having to depict the walls of the city. Nonetheless, the result that it had, for the most part, less effect on the basic idea that each action is limited to a specific place can still thought patterns of the Greeks and Romans than it does on ours.
Hence, classical artists tended to render narratives pertain, because the Trojan War did take place at Troy and Achilles did drag Hector's body around the city. The Homeric differently from the way we often do today. At the same time the nature of both Greek and Latin, as inflected languages, bowls, for instance, have only the common "symbolic" setting of most Greek representations.
In the two examples I have makes them much more attuned to dissecting visual scenes discussed, the bowl with Eteocles and Polyneices already dead that unfold their action in a nonsequential order. First, I realize that all tions on either side, the left of Argos and the right of Thebes, renderings, verbal and visual, then and now, are selective and while the other bowl with the two brothers still alive merely involve portraying differing kinds and amounts of informa- portrays doors, indicating the palace, on the right.
Hence, I tion, but that is another topic for another time. Second, believe that the concept of continuous narrative with a because I think it is a grave error to fasten on one theme and changing background could only have been posited by maintain that it explains everything, I want to make it clear someone like Wickhoff, who was working with Roman and not that I am very well aware that exceptions do exist. It is only once you understand the phenomenon in the overall trends I discuss are remarkably consistent through- Roman art that you can mentally strip the landscape away to out antiquity.
I have also tried to stress the complexity, see that the principle also operates in Greek art. Hall is right when tive should be organized are affected by the nature of one's he considers "time as culture,"78 then understanding time literacy. I made brief allusions to the theme when I suggested and its depictions will lead to a more thorough understanding that a true concept of chronology could not develop without of culture, especially when viewed not just in isolated seg- writing.
I am not claiming that artists were not literate, for I ments but as a whole. Also note that, while Theseus performs seven the directorof the iconographicdatabase Sibyl at Rutgers University. Museo Arqueologico Nacional, Madrid, , by Aison. Beazley, AtticRed-figure Vase-Painters,2d ed.
Hirmer, , pls. Only eleven of the twenty-twocycle vasesmeet the criterion describedin the test. All the vases nineteen cups, one skyphos, one calyx krater, and one volute krater are given in Brommer as in n. Oxford University certain shapes of vases as side A and side B. I use the standardcatalogues of Press, Rout- Arnott, Peter D. Oxford University Press, klassischenund hellenistischen Kunst Munich: Hirmer, , , contradicts Elwert, , 2.
Thames and Hudson, , line drawing , switches the metopes with Periphetes and Pro- crustes as follows: Yale UniversityPress, , , esp. See, for example, B. I also thank Donald Beetham for his assistance. Havelock and Jackson P. Hastings House, , I am grateful to the audiences at each presentation for their Journalof Philology81 Woodman, Rhetoric in Classical astute remarksand suggestions. I also would like to express my thankstoJohn Historiography London: Croom Helm, , Because the bibliography on the range of topics addressed here is ledge, , Since the pieces I Susan Woodford personal communication notes that "sometimes discuss are well known, I have limited my references to them to their basic Herakles fights the lion already wearing a lion skin All translationsare from the here the discussionis about general rules and patterns.
Loeb ClassicalLibraryunless otherwise noted. In between is "asthey are said to be or seem. Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland,chap. Comparealso Pollitt'sdiscussionof aletheia truth , , Dictionaryof Quotations,2d ed.
Oxford UniversityPress, , , and diligentia carefulness , , the Latin equivalent of akribeia accu- no. Leopard's Head Press, , passagein Aristotle'sPoetics a with its descriptionof the historian'sbrief. The column krater of ca. For a somewhat similar viewpoint, see Gentili and Cerri as in n. See Frank Brommer, Vasenlistenzur Literacyis now a verypopular topic.
Harris, griechischen Heldensage,3d ed. Universityof CaliforniaPress, , vol. Harrisargues , pl. For a more sympatheticinterpretationof this vase that is closer to here. Thomas'sbook is more interesting for my purposes because of its close mine, seeJane Henle, GreekMyths: Her basic premise that the IndianaUniversityPress, , , fig. Praeger, See also Small as in n. Basic Books, , 5. Oxford quaerat,scio; si quaerenti explicarevelim, nescio.
On the Cambridge University Press, , See also Wilcox, , for similarcomments on the Writtenand the Oral Cambridge: CambridgeUniversityPress, , Polybius, Compare Sophocles' Antigone,where Sophocles does not care whether oral memory. The ancient authors are more or less evenly split. Arnott gives require the prior reduction of language to a visual form, providing speech the example and the figures, Theseus has been chosen because no cycle vases exist for Herakles dides and today,see Woodman as in n.
Much fascinatingworkhas compare Brommer, as in n. Ketcham, Witnessfor the Odysseus also were not the subjects of cyclical representations until much Defense: The Arnott attributes the misunderstanding to the Renaissance. Also compare Himmelmann-Wildschfitzessay has been translated into English by H. Essaysby temporallycontinuous, though at firstthey mayappearso. He further notes "thateven this strikingdeparture It becomes apparent SvenskaInstitutetI Rom, vol.
SvenskaInstituteti Rom, is from close reading only, and the solutions suggested for it tend to come from a studydevoted to the GreatTrajanicFriezewith copious illustration. For a full scholars, not from actors. TheCenterofPower between Antigone's burial of her brother and her being caught in the act in NewYork: Braziller, , , fig. The frieze is dated C.
Toynbee as in n. See also Goody as in n. In fact, chronology is not an ancient word but first appears, of cinematic sequencing is the sequence, not discontinuity. For varying reconstructions, see John Boardman et al. Wilson, Scribesand Scholars,3d ed. Architecture Oxford UniversityPress, , Abrams, , , fig.
Compare MichaelYoung, "The beauty of the past is that it is so much more malleable than the present";Young, TheMetronomic University Press, , , figs. I prefer Society Cambridge, Ashmole, with Pelops, the winner,on the left, as is customary. In any case, the Mass.: HarvardUniversityPress, , Norman, ThePsychology ring effect is maintained. Basic Books, , , , discusses the We base our models on representationsof river gods; Gais, "Some Problems of River-GodIconogra- whateverknowledgewe have, real or imaginary,naive or sophisticated. Mental phy," AmericanJournal of Archaeology 82 Compare also models are often constructed from fragmentary evidence, with but a poor Boardman as in n.
Boardman as in n. Connelly has suggested postulatescauses, mechanisms,and relationshipseven where there are none. Similarly,on pagan the Athenian victory over Eumolpos. This reading has not received much and Christian biographers modeling somebody's biography on somebody favor from scholars. Pollitt and BurkhardtWesenberg have ques- else's biography, see Arnaldo Momigliano, "The Historians of the Classical tioned not so much whether the Panathenaia is represented as whether the World and Their Audiences: Some Suggestions," Annali dellaScuolaNormale entire frieze is devoted to that subject.
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