The IMHA leaders have been working with Mahuma for seven years to help assess the discrepancy between need and resources within the Congo. IMHA supports initiatives that seek to narrow this gap. Each of the panelists noted a particularly pressing dilemma regarding healthcare access in their own work. He noted ways in which the hospital has built creative partnerships with other organizations to address community healthcare needs.
Affordability, availability and continuity are three major dilemmas that need to be addressed right here in this community, explained Clare Krabill. He pointed out that there is a market that the community competes with for the best talent.
How do we keep up with need for physicians while keeping salaries at the justice standpoint? Finally, King brought up the importance of teaching youth that the church needs them in these positions. On Sunday morning, Ervin R. As the weekend came to a close, one final question was presented in the wrap-up session: The weekend theme fit well with the larger mission of Mennonite Healthcare Fellowship to be an organization in which Anabaptist healthcare workers can integrate their faith and their professional life.
She is the police inspector tasked with investigating the hit-and-run case, a dramatic irony that eventually leads closer and closer to home. Waking Lions , though a longer book, again translated by Sondra Silverston, feels smaller in scope, largely alternating between just two locations over the course of a few months.
It does gesture towards wider political themes, with the refugee narrative of particular relevance today. That said, a handful of new characters suddenly emerge much later in the novel, including a young Bedouin boy and a frustrated drug trafficker. This shift in pace is certainly exhilarating, and Gundar-Goshen has previously displayed her rare ability to combine elements from a variety of genres. Chemical, biological and nuclear weapons are capable of mass destruction aimed at killing masses of people.
Using CBW agents comes with many ethical dilemmas and consequential side-effects. Chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons are designed to yield a great number of deaths. Regarding the ethical use of CBW, while looking at the larger context of war, one must determine the value of life. Geneva Protocol of V. Taking a glance at headlines, one would read about current issues regarding Iraqi disarmament of weapons of mass destruction, Russian government intentional use of a gas that killed rebels and hostages, and terrorist threats on the United States.
Chemical and biological warfare CBW is not a new problem in the war against terror; it was a danger to communities centuries ago. There are many accounts of deliberate use of biological or chemical agents during war. Some of these earliest accounts mentioned are found in the 6th century BCE when the Assyrians poisoned enemy wells with rye ergot, a fungus disease. Also at that time Solon of Athens used the purgative herb hellebore, during siege of Krissa. The Bible describes the ten plagues of blood, frogs, gnats, flies, livestock, boils, hail, locusts, darkness and the slaying of the first born; all plagues that God brought about to the Egyptians.
In CE, the Tartar army catapulted corpses of plague victims over Kaffa's city walls. These are just a few examples of many accounts of the use of chemical and biological agents in war. Is the use of chemical, biological or nuclear weapons in war ethical? Is there an appropriate time to use them?
A dilemma will later be presented for consideration. Different ethical theories can either support or oppose the use of CBW depending on the circumstances.
However, chemical, biological and nuclear agents are dangerous, uncontrollable and undifferentiating weapons of mass destructions. Actions must be taken to see that there are no future instances of use during war. However, before one discusses the legal and ethical issues involved with CBW, one must understand what chemical, biological and nuclear weapons are and how they function. Most are not meant to be lethal, but most chemicals at high concentrations can be lethal.
Vomiting gases are used for riot-control or harassing agents and are only meant to irritate. It is the incapacitating nature of these responses that gives vomiting gases their harassing effects and name. Choking gases irritate the lower branches of the lungs. The gases can destroy the sensitive lung tissue leading to infection pneumonia, bronchitis or even block oxygen uptake leading to asphyxia Rose, , p.
AuthorHouse July 21, Language: Reproductive BioMedicine Online , 3 10 , Countries realized the power and destruction of CBW. Some of these countries and groups claim to have religious reasons for using such weapons. It is a bacterium that is highly infectious, via airborne droplets from coughing. It is impossible to understand the severity of certain diseases that can have ranges of disability, and the contribution of even a moderately disabled child should not be underestimated.
Some gases used are chlorine and phosgene. Nettle gases are primarily skin irritants, but at higher concentrations cause blistering. An exposure is like being thrown into a bed of stinging nettles Rose, , p. Blood gases are designed to be blood poisons. They are inhaled and then rapidly absorbed into blood where they block the cellular absorption of oxygen. Very small doses can completely block oxygen circulation throughout the body Rose, , p.
Some of the common blood gases are hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen chloride. Vesicants, also called blister agents, burn and blister every body tissue with which they come in contact.
Mustard gases, a class of vesicants, have no smell and do not cause initial pain or irritation. This is why they are so dangerous and consequently still in the arsenals of many countries fifty years after they were introduced Rose, , p. Mustard gases are far weaker than nerve gases, but long term exposure could produce the same effects Hersh, , p.
Nerve agents are "among the deadliest chemical killers known to mankind" Hersh, , p. Nerve agents kill quickly because they act as anti-cholinesterases. They work by blocking the enzyme that degrades the nerve signal transmitter, acetylcholine Hersh, , p. This has two effects: Some nerve agents are tabun, soman, sarin, and VX. Incendiary weapons are another type of agent used in chemical warfare.
There are two classes, the first being Napalm, a gelled gasoline. Napalm casualties are caused by heat and formation of carbon monoxide. The other type of incendiary weapons is white phosphorus. It is absorbed by the skin and then turns into acids in body, which then burn from within. There is no effective decontamination treatment for white phosphorus, so once it gets to the skin it burns its way to the bone Hersh, , p. Defoliants can be both chemical based and biological based whether the agent is a man-made chemical or a biologic disease like a fungus.