Today his face appears on the U. Washington did not belong to a political party. He ran as a nonpartisan candidate in the presidential elections of and To this day, Washington is the only U. Washington was born into a Virginia planter family. In Washington acquired a farmhouse which he later expanded to a five-farm estate called Mount Vernon. In , 49 slaves lived and worked on the estate; by that number had increased to over Washington eventually freed the slaves he owned.
After serving two terms as president, Washington retired to his estate at Mount Vernon in Two years into his retirement, Washington caught a cold. The cold developed into a throat infection. For years people have shared a story about the first U. Alas, it is not. The legend was the invention of a 19th-century bookseller named Mason Locke Weems.
The legend is one of many about Washington. His mother was Mary Ball, whom Augustine, a widower, had married early the previous year. But family fortunes fell with the Puritan revolution in England, and John Washington, grandfather of Augustine, migrated in to Virginia. The ancestral home at Sulgrave, Northamptonshire , is maintained as a Washington memorial. Little definite information exists on any of the line until Augustine.
He was an energetic, ambitious man who acquired much land, built mills, took an interest in opening iron mines, and sent his two eldest sons to England for schooling. By his first wife, Jane Butler, he had four children. By his second wife, Mary Ball, he had six. Augustine died April 12, On July 3 Washington assumed command of the American forces at Cambridge. Not only did he have to contain the British in Boston, but he also had to recruit a Continental army.
During the winter of —76 recruitment lagged so badly that…. He attended school irregularly from his 7th to his 15th year, first with the local church sexton and later with a schoolmaster named Williams. Some of his schoolboy papers survive. He was fairly well trained in practical mathematics—gauging, several types of mensuration, and such trigonometry as was useful in surveying. He studied geography, possibly had a little Latin, and certainly read some of The Spectator and other English classics. The copybook in which he transcribed at 14 a set of moral precepts, or Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation , was carefully preserved.
His best training, however, was given him by practical men and outdoor occupations, not by books. He mastered tobacco growing and stock raising, and early in his teens he was sufficiently familiar with surveying to plot the fields about him. Lawrence inherited the beautiful estate of Little Hunting Creek, which had been granted to the original settler, John Washington, and which Augustine had done much since to develop.
Lawrence married Anne Nancy Fairfax, daughter of Col. William Fairfax, a cousin and agent of Lord Fairfax and one of the chief proprietors of the region. Lawrence also built a house and named the 2,acre 1,hectare holding Mount Vernon in honour of the admiral under whom he had served in the siege of Cartagena. Living there chiefly with Lawrence though he spent some time near Fredericksburg with his other half brother, Augustine, called Austin , George entered a more spacious and polite world.
Anne Fairfax Washington was a woman of charm, grace, and culture; Lawrence had brought from his English school and naval service much knowledge and experience. The youth turned first to surveying as a profession. Lord Fairfax, a middle-aged bachelor who owned more than 5,, acres 2,, hectares in northern Virginia and the Shenandoah Valley , came to America in to live with his cousin George William at Belvoir and to look after his properties. Two years later he sent to the Shenandoah Valley a party to survey and plot his lands to make regular tenants of the squatters moving in from Pennsylvania.
With the official surveyor of Prince William county in charge, Washington went along as assistant. The year-old lad kept a disjointed diary of the trip, which shows skill in observation. The following year , aided by Lord Fairfax, Washington received an appointment as official surveyor of Culpeper county, and for more than two years he was kept almost constantly busy. Surveying not only in Culpeper but also in Frederick and Augusta counties, he made journeys far beyond the Tidewater region into the western wilderness.
The experience taught him resourcefulness and endurance and toughened him in both body and mind. He was always disposed to speculate in western holdings and to view favourably projects for colonizing the West, and he greatly resented the limitations that the crown in time laid on the westward movement. There Washington was sometimes entertained and had access to a small library that Fairfax had begun accumulating at Oxford. Lawrence, stricken by tuberculosis , went to Barbados in for his health, taking George along. From this sole journey beyond the present borders of the United States, Washington returned with the light scars of an attack of smallpox.
In July of the next year, Lawrence died, making George executor and residuary heir of his estate should his daughter, Sarah, die without issue. As she died within two months, Washington at age 20 became head of one of the best Virginia estates. He gradually increased the estate until it exceeded 8, acres 3, hectares.
Washington's silence about this upon his return to Mount Vernon, in October , was considered an acquiescence and consent for his being the only viable candidate to assume the presidency during this unstable period. On February 13, the Electoral College unanimously elected Washington president for a second term. John Adams was reelected Vice President by a vote of seventy-seven to fifty. Criticized by the National Gazette and political adversaries over his birthday celebration and for appearing as a "monarchist", Washington kept a low profile, arriving at his inauguration in plain form and alone in a simple carriage.
The presidential oath of office was administered to Washington by Associate Justice William Cushing This was the first inauguration to take place in Philadelphia, the nation's capital at this time. After the swearing in ceremony Washington maintained his low profile and delivered the shortest inaugural address on record. In , Washington signed the Fugitive Slave Act which allowed slave owners to cross state lines and retrieve runaway slaves. Washington appointed Oliver Wolcott, Jr. The affair strengthened Washington's bond with Hamilton while it distanced him from Knox. In the months that led up to the end of his presidency, Washington was relentlessly assailed by his political foes and a largely partisan press, accusing him of being ambitious and greedy.
Washington pointed out that he had taken no salary during the entire war and risked his life in numerous battles. He came to regard the press as an erosive and disuniting force that spread numerous falsehoods, referring to them as "diabolical". This also had a great influence in his Farewell Address , which expressed how troubled he was by the years of infighting and character assassination by much of the press.
Washington had planned to retire after his first term as President and in , he had James Madison draft a farewell message for his first term. However, upon his reelection, Washington had dug up Madison's draft in a drawer of his presidential desk. Donning a black velvet robe, with his dress sword at his side, a politically weary and tired Washington had to work up the energy for his final address to Congress.
Arriving at the House of Representatives on December 7 he was received by " Washington's Farewell Address proved to be one of the most influential statements on republicanism. He referred to morality as "a necessary spring of popular government". Washington's address warned against foreign alliances and their influence in domestic affairs, and against bitter partisanship in domestic politics. He also called for men to move beyond partisanship and serve the common good,  stressing that the United States must concentrate on its own interests.
He counseled friendship and commerce with all nations, but advised against involvement in European wars which was largely embraced by John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison. Washington was born into a world accustomed to slavery, and he fully embraced it without question until the American Revolution.
Prior to Washington had no qualms about slavery and held traditional views that blacks were an inferior race. In January, , Washington allowed blacks to serve in the Continental Army. There are conflicting reports of slave treatment at Mount Vernon. While one visitor said Washington treated his slaves "far more humanely" than other Virginia slave owners, he also noted that the slaves "work all week, not having a single day for themselves except holidays. One sees by that that the condition of our peasants [in Poland] is infinitely happier.
Although Washington discouraged cruelty, there are records of harsh punishments, that included whippings, inflicted on male and female slaves by overseers , some of whom were slaves. In some cases runaway slaves were put in shackles. He also used non-violent forms of discipline, including "admonition and advise", cash payments, and material incentives.
George Washington was the first President of the United States (−), and was among the nation's Founding Fathers. From to , he led the. George Washington – first American president, commander of the Continental Army, president of the Constitutional Convention, and gentleman planter.
Washington sometimes personally cared for ill or injured slaves, and provided physicians and mid-wives. By the Revolutionary War he had all his slaves inoculated for smallpox. He ordered his slaves to work from dawn to dusk. After the war Washington ceased his slavetrading, and supported many slaves too young or too old to work, greatly increasing Mount Vernon's slave population, and causing the plantation to operate at a loss.
During the summer of , he resolved his personal struggle with slaveholding by making a new will, which directed his slaves be freed upon the death of his wife Martha. Martha freed Washington's slaves on January 1, Historian John Ferling said Washington's will and the freeing of his slaves was "an act of atonement for a lifetime of concurrence in human exploitation.
Washington retired from the presidency in March and returned to Mount Vernon with a profound sense of relief. He devoted much time to his plantations and other business interests, including his distillery, which produced its first batch of spirits in February Running a deficit, Washington attempted to sell off these holdings but failed to obtain the price that he desired. Once in retirement, Washington became an even more committed Federalist. President Adams offered Washington a commission as lieutenant general on July 4, , and as Commander-in-chief of the armies raised for service in that conflict.
He accepted and served as the Commanding General from July 13, until his death 17 months later. He participated in planning for a Provisional Army to meet any emergency but avoided involvement in details. He delegated most of the work to Hamilton, a major general, including active leadership of the army. No French army invaded the United States during this period, and Washington did not assume a field command  [s]. On Thursday, December 12, Washington inspected his farms by horse while snow and sleet were falling. He returned late for dinner, his neck was wet, and snow matted his hair.
He refused to change his wet clothes, not wanting to keep his guests waiting. The following day, despite having a sore throat, he again went out in freezing snowy weather to mark trees for cutting. That evening Washington complained of a sore throat and chest congestion, but he remained cheerful. On Saturday morning, Washington awoke to an inflamed throat and difficulty breathing. He ordered estate overseer George Rawlins to remove nearly a pint of his blood, a common practice of his times. His personal physicians [t] were also summoned. Doctor Brown thought that Washington had " quinsey " or "quincy", while Dick thought that the condition was a more serious "violent inflammation of the throat".
The other two doctors, unfamiliar with the new procedure, disapproved and it was not used. Washington's illness and subsequent death came swiftly and unexpectedly. In his journal, Washington's personal secretary Tobias Lear recorded his last words as "'Tis well. When news of Washington's death reached Congress, which was in session, they immediately adjourned for the day, and the next morning the Speaker's chair was shrouded in black. The funeral was held on December 18, , at Mount Vernon, where his body was interred. Cavalry and foot soldiers lead the procession, while six Colonels, all of whom had served under Washington during the revolution, served as the pallbearers.
The actual funeral service was restricted mostly to family and friends. Word of Washington's death traveled slowly; church-bells rang in the various cities, and many places of business closed when word finally arrived. In the United States, memorial processions were held in major cities. Martha Washington wore a black mourning cape for one year. To protect their privacy, Martha burned the correspondence which they had exchanged; only five letters between the couple are known to have survived, two letters from Martha to George and three from him to her.
The diagnosis of Washington's illness and the immediate cause of his death have been subjects of debate since the day he died. In the days immediately following his death, Craik and Dick's published account stated that they felt that his symptoms had been consistent with cynanche trachealis , a term of that period used to describe severe inflammation of the structures of the upper airway. Even at that early date, there were accusations of medical malpractice, with some believing that Washington had been bled to death.
Washington was buried in the old family vault at Mount Vernon, situated on a grassy slope covered with juniper and cypress trees. It contained the remains of his brother Lawrence and other family members.
The decrepit vault was in need of repair, prompting Washington to leave instructions in his will for the construction of a new vault. In a disgruntled ex-employee of the estate attempted to steal Washington's skull. The crypt had been built by architect Charles Bulfinch in the s during the reconstruction of the burned-out capitol after the British had set it afire in August , during the Burning of Washington. Southern opposition was intense, antagonized by an ever-growing rift between North and South, who were concerned Washington's remains could end up on "a shore foreign to his native soil" should the country become divided.
On October 7, George Washington's remains, still in the original lead coffin, were placed within a marble sarcophagus designed by William Strickland and constructed by John Struthers earlier that year. George Washington's legacy endures among the most influential in American history, being Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and a hero of the Revolution, and subsequently the first President of the United States. He set many precedents for the national government, and the presidency in particular, and as early as was called the " Father of His Country ".
Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism, as the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire. The Federalists made him the symbol of their party but, for many years, the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Washington Monument. During the United States Bicentennial year, George Washington was posthumously appointed to the grade of General of the Armies of the United States by the congressional joint resolution Public Law 94— passed on January 19, , with an effective appointment date of July 4, The most popular childhood story about Washington is that he "chopped down" his father's favorite cherry tree and admitted the deed when questioned: Many places and monuments have been named in honor of Washington, most notably the nation's capital, Washington, D.
The state of Washington is the only state to be named after a United States president. The Washington Monument was built in his honor and the George Washington Masonic National Memorial in Alexandria, Virginia was constructed between and with contributions from the Freemasons. After Washington's death, Congress authorized a memorial in the national capital, but the decision was reversed when the Democratic-Republicans took control of Congress in The Democratic-Republicans were dismayed that Washington had become the symbol of the Federalist Party.
It was not completed until The first Washington Monument in Baltimore , Maryland. The serious collection and publication of Washington's documentary record began with the pioneer work of Jared Sparks in the s in Life and Writings of George Washington 12 vols. Fitzpatrick who was commissioned by the George Washington Bicentennial Commission.
It contains over 17, letters and documents and is available online from the University of Virginia. It contains everything written by Washington or signed by him, together with most of his incoming letters. Part of the collection is available online from the University of Virginia. This was the record for a document sold at auction. George Washington appears on contemporary U. Washington and Benjamin Franklin appeared on the nation's first postage stamps in Since that time, Washington has appeared on many postage issues, more than all other presidents combined.
George Washington, by John Trumbull , George Washington by Gilbert Stuart , Lansdowne portrait by Gilbert Stuart, Portrait miniature of George Washington by Robert Field , George Washington by Rembrandt Peale , Washington and family by Edward Savage , painted between and From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the first President of the United States. For other uses, see George Washington disambiguation.
George Washington painting by Gilbert Stuart , March Ancestry of George Washington and Colony of Virginia. French and Indian War. George Washington and religion and American Enlightenment. Washington's crossing of the Delaware River. Belligerents at the Battle of Saratoga. Battle of Monmouth and Sullivan Expedition.
Belligerents on the Hudson River. Presidency of George Washington. Jefferson and Hamilton, bitter rivals.
George Washington's Farewell Address. Post-presidency of George Washington. Legacy of George Washington.
List of memorials to George Washington. The Papers of George Washington. April 6 is when Congress counted the votes of the Electoral College and certified a president. April 30 is when Washington was sworn in. The provisions of the British Calendar New Style Act , implemented in , altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1 it had been March These changes resulted in dates being moved forward 11 days, and an advance of one year for those between January 1 and March For a further explanation, see Old Style and New Style dates.
Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress called its presiding officer "President of the United States in Congress Assembled", but this position had no national executive powers. James Craik , Dr. Gustavus Brown and Dr. Betts, , claims two days passed; Chernow, , claims it was three. These treatments included multiple doses of calomel a cathartic or purgative , and extensive bloodletting 2. Parry and Andrew M. Allison declare that Washington "was the dominant personality in three of the most critical events in that founding: Had he not served as America's leader in those three events, all three likely would have failed.
And America as we know it today would not exist. Der Gantz Neue Verbesserte Nord-Americanische Calendar has Fame appearing with an image of Washington holding a trumpet to her lips, from which come the words " Der Landes Vater " translated as "the father of the country" or "the father of the land". Army five-star generals have there been and who were they? For a list of published works, see Bibliography of George Washington. Book sources Adams, Randolph Greenfield Dictionary of American Biography.
George Washington, a Biography. The War That Made America: Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct. Bassett, John Spencer The Federalist System, — Bell, William Gardner . Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff, — The Nine Lives of George Washington. Southern Methodist University Press.
Quarterly Bulletin of the Archeological Society of Virginia. Archeological Society of Virginia. Archived from the original PDF on December 24, George Washington, Gentleman Warrior. Great Britain, Quercus Publishers. The Health of the Presidents: The Man and the Mason. Cheatham, ML August Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. A Reference History 7th ed. Crowder, Jack Darrell Chaplains of the Revolutionary War: Black Robed American Warriors.
George Washington, Man and Monument.
George Washington's Mount Vernon: At Home in Revolutionary America. George Washington and the American Revolution. The Age of Federalism. Slate , January 18, Religion and the American Presidency: George Washington to George W. Bush with Commentary and Primary Sources. Federalists and the Jay Treaty Debate". Journal of the Early Republic. George Washington and the Jay Treaty". The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. Felisati, D; Sperati, G February Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution. The Ascent of George Washington: A Life of George Washington.
Fischer, David Hackett Foundation of Presidential Leadership and Character. Flexner, James Thomas Anguish and Farewell — The Traitor and the Spy: University Press of Kansas. Freeman, Douglas Southall Journals of the Continental Congress, — Washington at Valley Forge. Harwell, Richard Barksdale, ed. Bayonets in the Wilderness: Anthony Wayne's Legion in the Old Northwest.
University of Oklahoma Press. George Washington and the American Political Tradition. A Guide to All Things Washington. The Death of a Disease. A Portrait of George Washington. University Press of Virginia. George Washington and the Conway Cabal". The War of American Independence: Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice, — George Washington and the American Military Tradition.
University of Georgia Press. Hindle, Brooke . George Washington and Slavery: University of Missouri Press. George Washington and the Virginia Backcountry. Life of George Washington, Vol. The Articles of Confederation: University of Wisconsin Press. George Washington, the Christian. Kazin, Michael; et al. The Battles for Trenton and Princeton. America and the Coup d'Etat".
The William and Mary Quarterly.
The Journal of American History. Archived from the original PDF on September 24, Lancaster, Bruce; Plumb, John H. George Washington's Sacred Fire. Lodge, Henry Cabot George Washington, Volume 2. Mann, Barbara Alice George Washington's War on Native America. University of Nevada Press. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. The Political Philosophy of George Washington. The Eclectic Medical Journal, Volume Niemcewicz, Julian Ursyn In Jean Butenhoff Lee.
University Press of Virginia Press. Religion, Liberty, and the Father of Our Country. Palmer, Dave Richard George Washington and Benedict Arnold: A Tale of Two Patriots.
Washington's address warned against foreign alliances and their influence in domestic affairs, and against bitter partisanship in domestic politics. Upon the return to Williamsburg of his small party from the shores of Lake Erie in January , Washington received popular recognition through the publication of his detailed journal of the rugged four-month-long expedition. The Wounded Knee Massacre Archived from the original on July 8, With the official surveyor of Prince William county in charge, Washington went along as assistant.
The Real George Washington: National Center for Constitutional Studies. Visionary General of the American Revolution. Randall, Willard Sterne George Washington-the Man Behind the Myths. Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia. Random House Publishing Group. Slavery at the home of George Washington. Mount Vernon Ladies' Association. The Life of George Washington. Panic on Wall Street: A History of America's Financial Disasters. The Summer of The Tomb of Washington at Mount Vernon. Lincoln's Relentless Struggle to End Slavery.
American Revolutions A Continental History, In The Hands of a Good Providence. Unger, Harlow Giles The Early America Review. Archived from the original on December 16, Van Doren, Carl Secret history of the American Revolution: An Illustrated Guide to the Lost Symbol. Weems, Mason Locke Farrar, Straus and Giroux. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. Soldier-statesmen of the Constitution. Army Center of Military History U. Primary sources Lengel, Edward G. The Papers of George Washington: Retrieved March 7, Writings of George Washington 39 Vols.
The Writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources, A history of the life and death, virtues and exploits of General George Washington: Archived from the original on July 8, Retrieved July 7, Retrieved January 3, Archived from the original on October 24, Retrieved July 2, Smithsonian National Postal Museum. George Washington's Mount Vernon. Retrieved July 1, National Archives and Records Administration. Archived from the original on February 21, Retrieved April 12, Retrieved July 20, Retrieved June 27, Retrieved January 7, Retrieved June 13, Twohig, Dorothy October Washington's Role in the Controversy Over Slavery".
Retrieved July 3, Archived from the original on November 28, Retrieved November 12, Wallenborn, White McKenzie, M. George Washington Papers, — Series 3b Varick Transcripts. Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved November 13, Shad, Wheat, and Rye Whiskey: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin: Archived from the original PDF on An Interview with Phillip Levy".
Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved June 10, Interview with Mary V. Retrieved August 10, Schenawolf, Harry September 15, Retrieved August 24, Retrieved September 2, Retrieved September 7, Retrieved September 15, Find more about George Washington at Wikipedia's sister projects. United States presidential election, —89 First inauguration inaugural bible Second inauguration Title of "Mr.
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