Izanami-no-Mikoto woke up, shrieking and indignant, and chased after him. She also sent shikome foul women to hunt for Izanagi-no-Mikoto and bring him back to Yomi. Izanagi-no-Mikoto burst out of the entrance and pushed a boulder in the mouth of the Yomotsuhirasaka cavern that was the entrance of Yomi. Izanami-no-Mikoto screamed from behind this impenetrable barricade and told Izanagi-no-Mikoto that if he left her she would destroy 1, residents of the living every day.
He furiously replied he would give life to 1, In different traditions Inanna is the daughter of Anu or she is the daughter of the moon god Nanna.
In various traditions, her siblings include the sun god Utu, the rain god Ishkur, and Ereshkigal, Queen of the Underworld. Her personal assistant is Ninshubur. She is never considered to have a permanent spouse, although Dumuzi is her lover. My mistress abandoned heaven, abandoned earth, and descended to the underworld. Black, Cunningham, et al. She instructed her minister Ninshubur that, after three days, she was to ask help of the great gods. When the creatures sympathized with Ereshkigal, who was groaning in misery, she offered them rich rewards, but they asked only for the corpse on the peg.
They sprinkled it, and Inanna lived again.
However, before the judges would let her leave the great below, they insisted she provide a substitute, and so demons ascended with her to bring her substitute back. Inanna refused to give them several faithful servants, but she surrendered her bridegroom Dumuzi because he was not in mourning for her.
For a while Dumuzi escaped the demons, but finally they carried him off. Then Inanna mourned for him. Some scholars assign its celebration to the Spring season at the time of the Babylonian New Year; others place its enactment during the Summer months. As it is a tale of death and rebirth, of the dismantling and reintegration of spirit…. The Akkadian story is first attested in Late Bronze Age texts, in both Babylonia and Assyria, and later from the palace library at Nineveh.
It is a fuller, more detailed account, and shows clearly that Dumuzi periodically died and rose, causing seasonal fertility, a fact which had been doubted until , when a newly published fragment disclosed the crucial evidence. This version contains no ritual or incantation. They are gloomy, their shadow dark, no light is in their bodies, ever they slink along covertly, walk not upright, from their claws drips bitter gall, their footprints are full of evil venom….
Up above they roar, down below they cheep, they are the bitter venom of the gods, they are the great storms let loose from heaven,…. Thorkild Jacobsen, The Treasures of Darkness: A History of Mesopotamian Religion, p. He is also considered to be ruler of Yomi. According to the oldest sources ca. Thus, Sogdiana and nearby Bukara or Bactria, are thought to have been the gateways for Mesopotamian ideas, as well as Northern Wei period Buddhist, and pre-Iran Mazdeism and Manichaen influences into China, all the same ideas that were filtering into Japan in roughly the same periods.
Xiwangmu images are also found in the Kofun period tumuli in Japan.
Many have also noted the woolly beginnings of the Kojiki genealogies that begin with the mention of a host of heavenly but nameless and uncharacterized faceless deities who precede the better known creator deities of the royal clan lineages, Ninigi, Izanagi and Izanami, Amaterasu and Susanoo, who in contrast, have detailed epic stories, etc. One might be able to interpret this silence on the issue of ancestry as a lack of interest on the part of the Sasanian monarchs in creating an earthly lineage for themselves and the desire instead to promote a grander and much more important lineage for their family.
While no male ancestor prior to the grandfathers is ever mentioned by any of these kings, something far more interesting exists on their coins and inscriptions which is much more majestic and awe inspiring than any ancestry they had or could create for themselves. Below are extracts of writings that shed further light on the influence of the Greeks from South to Central to East Asia:.
Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: The Kushan king Kanishka, who honored Zoroastrian, Greek and Brahmanic deities as well as the Buddha and was famous for his religious syncretism , convened the Fourth Buddhist Council around CE in Kashmir in order to redact the Sarvastivadin canon. The new syncretic form of Buddhism expanded fully into Eastern Asia soon after these events.
The Kushan monk Lokaksema visited the Han Chinese court at Luoyang in CE, and worked there for ten years to make the first known translations of Mahayana texts into Chinese.
The new faith later spread into Korea and Japan, and was itself at the origin of Zen. The Kalash people of northwestern Pakistan are unique in their customs and religion. Although surrounded by Moslems in all directions Pakistan is essentially a Moslem state , they believe in ancient Greek gods and goddessess such as Zeus, Aphrodite, Hestia, and Apollo.
Their language is principally a mixture of Sanskrit and Greek. They grow grapes and make wine an illegal action in an Islamic country and their diet is rich in fruits, vegetables and nuts. The geographical, cultural and historical context of the rise of Mahayana Buddhism during the 1st century BCE in northwestern India, all point to intense multi-cultural influences.
Maitreya is the fifth Buddha of the present world-age, who will appear at some undefined future epoch. Buddhist monks from the region of Gandhara, where Greco-Buddhism was most influential, played a key role in the development and the transmission of Buddhist ideas in the direction of northern Asia.
Kushan monks, such as Lokaksema c.
They propagated Buddhist doctrine, circulated scriptures and drawings, and advised the people to relinquish worldly attachments. Through art and religion, the influence of Greco-Buddhism on the cultural make-up of East Asian countries, especially China, Korea and Japan, may have extended further into the intellectual area.
At the same time as Greco-Buddhist art and Mahayana schools of thought such as Dhy? After Alexander, several Greek Kingdoms were created covering most of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of India that lasted for 3 centuries. The inhabitants were called Indo-Greeks. Only one ancient city has been excavated so far and it lies on the shores of the Amu Darya River. The city exhibits temples, a gymnasium, a palace, numerous buildings, and a huge theatre sculpted on the side of a hill with a superb view of the river valley and the tall mountains of what is now Tajikistan across.
These kingdoms ventured into India and expanded as far as the eastern parts of the Indian peninsula.
Place names are still preserved today. However, the legacy of these kingdoms outlasted the kings in culture and art that are still admired. Greek techniques of stone and metalworking began to be used in India, Greek coins began to appear in the bazaars, and settlements of Greek type were found as urban islands in the sea of Indian native villages. Let us know about it.
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