The Falklands War (Twentieth Century Wars)

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Instead it involved both countries in a short, but intense, conflict which cost the lives of British, and Argentine, personnel. The Falklands War - examines the interaction between military force and diplomacy, shedding light on their often hidden relationship- explores the deeply personal response of the British and Argentine public to the conflict- assesses the relationship between the Government and the media, and considers the interpretation of the war in Britain- analyses the effect of the conflict on the concept of 'Thatcher's Britain'The Falklands War exemplified what one historian has called the 'myriad faces of war'.

It was the last war which Britain fought outside a coalition or an international organisation, and, far from being marginal to Britain's key role as part of the defence system against the Soviet threat, it held a mirror up to the face of the British people in the late twentieth century. Authoritative and clear, this is the ideal introduction for anyone with an interest in one of Britain's most significant military engagements, its impact and consequences.

Interest in Britain's wars, both past and present, is currently very high given the ongoing situation in Iraq Examines the interaction between war and diplomacy, and assesses Britain's foreign policy at the time, and the analysis of intelligence again, topical subjects Looks at the British media's representation and interpretation of the conflict.

An elite invasion force trained in secrecy, but its timetable was shortened on March 19 when a dispute erupted on British-controlled South Georgia island, where Argentine salvage workers had raised the Argentine flag, miles 1, km east of the Falklands. Naval forces were quickly mobilized. Argentine troops invaded the Falklands on April 2, rapidly overcoming the small garrison of British marines at the capital Stanley Port Stanley ; they obeyed orders not to inflict any British casualties, despite losses to their own units.

The next day Argentine marines seized the associated island of South Georgia. By late April Argentina had stationed more than 10, troops on the Falklands, although the vast majority of these were poorly trained conscripts, and they were not supplied with proper food, clothing, and shelter for the approaching winter. As expected, the Argentine populace reacted favourably, with large crowds gathering at the Plaza de Mayo in front of the presidential palace to demonstrate support for the military initiative.

In response to the invasion, the British government under Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher declared a war zone for miles km around the Falklands. The government quickly assembled a naval task force built around two aircraft carriers, the year-old HMS Hermes and the new HMS Invincible light carrier, and two cruise ships pressed into service as troop carriers, the Queen Elizabeth 2 and the Canberra. The carriers sailed from Portsmouth on April 5 and were reinforced en route.

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Most European powers voiced support for Great Britain, and European military advisers were withdrawn from Argentine bases. However, most Latin American governments sympathized with Argentina.

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A notable exception was Chile , which maintained a state of alert against its neighbour because of a dispute over islands in the Beagle Channel. The perceived threat from Chile prompted Argentina to keep most of its elite troops on the mainland, distant from the Falklands theatre. In addition, Argentine military planners had trusted that the United States would remain neutral in the conflict, but, following unsuccessful mediation attempts, the United States offered full support to Great Britain, allowing its NATO ally to use its air-to-air missiles, communications equipment, aviation fuel, and other military stockpiles on British-held Ascension Island , as well as cooperating with military intelligence.

The latter posed more of a threat to the British fleet than was expected, launching torpedo attacks that narrowly failed. Meanwhile, the British naval force and the land-based Argentine air forces fought pitched battles. Argentine aircraft consisted mainly of several dozen old U. That they proved as effective as they did was a testimony to the skill and motivation of their pilots. In addition, the Argentine navy had recently taken delivery of a few new French-made Super Etendard attack aircraft armed with the newest Exocet antiship missiles; though only a handful in number, these proved particularly deadly.

The Falklands War

The Falklands War (Twentieth Century Wars) [D. George Boyce] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book traces the interaction of war. The Falklands War also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, Malvinas War, South . Broadcasting on the BBC World Service, he told the Falkland Islanders: "This is Rob Muldoon. .. Amphibious Warfare – COMAW) mounted Operation Sutton, the amphibious landing on beaches around San Carlos Water, on.

British ships therefore remained out of range except when closing in to attack Argentine positions. For the British, the problem was their dependence on two aircraft carriers, as the loss of one would almost certainly have forced withdrawal.

Fix Bayonets, The Battle for Goose Green

Air cover was limited to perhaps 20 short-range Sea Harrier naval jets armed with air-to-air missiles. To make up for the lack of long-range air cover, a screening force of destroyers and frigates was stationed ahead of the fleet to serve as radar pickets.

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However, not all of them were armed with full antiaircraft systems or close-in weapons for shooting down incoming missiles. The Argentines, meanwhile, lost some 20—30 percent of their planes. Thus weakened, the Argentines were unable to prevent the British from making an amphibious landing on the islands.

The course of the conflict

The sinking of the Belgrano. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 7 January Escorts would be provided for this day, after which Sir Tristram would be left to unload using a Mexeflote a powered raft for as long as it took to finish. Retrieved 4 January

Apparently expecting a direct British assault, the Argentine ground-forces commander, Gen. Instead, the British navy task-force commander, Rear Adm. John Woodward , and the land-force commander, Maj.

Falkland Islands War

Jeremy Moore, decided to make their initial landing near Port San Carlos, on the northern coast of East Falkland , and then mount an overland attack on Stanley. They calculated that this would avoid casualties to the British civilian population and to the British forces. The British landed unopposed on May 21, but the Argentine defenders, some 5, strong, quickly organized an effective resistance, and heavy fighting was required to wear it down.

The Argentine air forces, meanwhile, kept up their attacks on the British fleet, sinking two frigates, a destroyer, a container ship carrying transport helicopters, and a landing ship disembarking troops. In addition, they damaged several other frigates and destroyers. Nevertheless, they were not able to damage either aircraft carrier or sink enough ships to jeopardize British land operations.

They also lost a considerable portion of their remaining jets as well as their Falklands-based helicopters and light ground-attack planes. From the beachhead at Port San Carlos, the British infantry advanced rapidly southward, through forced marches under extremely adverse weather conditions, to capture the settlements of Darwin and Goose Green.

After several days of hard fighting, some of it hand-to-hand, against determined Argentine troops dug in along several ridgelines, the British succeeded in taking and occupying the high ground west of Stanley. With British forces surrounding and blockading the capital and main port, it was clear that the large Argentine garrison there was cut off and could be starved out.

British forces removed a small Argentine garrison from one of the South Sandwich Islands , some miles km southeast of South Georgia, on June The British captured some 11, Argentine prisoners during the war, all of whom were released afterward. Argentina announced that about lives had been lost—about half of them in the sinking of the General Belgrano —while Britain lost The war also illustrated the importance of air superiority—which the British had been unable to establish—and of advanced surveillance. Logistic support was vital as well, because the armed forces of both countries had operated at their maximum ranges.

See also naval warfare: The age of the guided missile.