Fue realmente una victoria del pueblo. La primera de esas asociaciones era un sindicato nacional con millones de miembros. Lucharon contra el UFW para obtener contratos de los viticultores.
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Fue una organizadora brillante y tuvo bajo su responsabilidad la mayor parte de las actividades normativas y legislativas. La llevaron a la sala de urgencias donde le diagnosticaron una ruptura del bazo y varias costillas rotas. Algunas veces, las personas se dedican a un ayuno con agua, lo que quiere decir que no comen, pero siguen bebiendo agua. Durante una huelga llena de tensiones, algunos de los miembros del UFW deseaban ejercer represalias contra la violencia que se empleaba contra ellos. Muchos miles de personas rodearon el palacio de justicia para ofrecerle su apoyo, porque se daban cuenta de que lo necesitaba en su estado de debilitamiento.
Expresa sus poderosas razones espirituales para el ayuno. Muchos decidieron no adquirir esa fruta porque simpatizaban con la lucha. Muchas propuestas de California se aprobaron en contra de sus deseos. Esto fue real sobre todo en lo que se refiere a la batalla contra el uso desmedido de pesticidas. Otros de los sindicatos estaban dispuestos ignorar los efectos de los pesticidas; pero no el UFW. Han creado un legado de dolor, miseria y muerte tanto para los trabajadores del campo como para los consumidores … Esos pesticidas empapan los terrenos. Hizo todo lo que estuvo a su alcance, incluyendo el ayuno, para obtener respaldo para su causa.
No consideraba que se hubiera ganado del todo la batalla. Fue de pueblo en pueblo, tratando de convencer a los consumidores de que no comieran uva hasta que estuviera carente de pesticidas. En la misa de su funeral, el cardenal Roger M. El UFW sigue ayudando a los explotados y a aquellos cuyas vidas se ponen en peligro por los cultivos mismos que tratan de cosechar. En su libro Up From Mexico, Carey McWilliams que fue testigo presencial , describe una escena durante los motines de los pachucos: Este fortalecimiento era la meta del UFW.
Los que se oponen nuestra causa son ricos y poderosos, y tienen muchos aliados en los altos niveles. Nuestros aliados son pocos; pero tenemos algo que los ricos no poseen. El ser hombre es sufrir por otros. Sus metas son las de seguir inspirando a otros. El plan de Delano.: Ferriss, Susan and Ricardo Sandoval.
The Fight in the Fields: Griswold del Castillo, Richard and Richard A. A Triumph of Spirit.
University of Oklahoma Press. In addition, there were legal agreements already in place between NACC and the publishing companies of the instruments that limited the type and nature of changes that could be made to the measures. Given that the examiners administering the Spanish version of these instruments would be English-Spanish bilinguals, translation of the form instructions to the examiners was deemed unnecessary.
The first step undertaken by STAWG was the identification of published translations of the target instruments and local translations of the same that were available to members of the group. The subcommittees would then generate working versions of these measures to be distributed to the group at large for discussion at consensus conference calls. Approval by the CTF followed and the first official version of the measures were made available online in April for immediate implementation in ADCs across the nation.
As part of the process of translation and adaptation, STAWG established 5 general principles to guide its work:. The BNT is a widely used measure of confrontation naming that consists of 60 black and white line drawings of objects that the examinee is asked to name.
The English UDS version of the BNT consists of the 30 odd-numbered items of the test, which are administered in order starting with item 1 and with semantic and phonemic cues provided as needed. In the English UDS version, testing is discontinued after 6 consecutive trials where the subject is unable to name the item spontaneously or after the provision of the stimulus cue. Because of this, translation and adaptation of the BNT to other English-speaking 45 and non-English-speaking samples have resulted in the elimination, substitution, or reordering of BNT items.
The order of presentation of the 60 items of the official Spanish edition mirrors the order of presentation of the standard BNT, except that each of the 12 new items takes the place of the item it was created to substitute. The second official Spanish edition of the BNT was published in , 49 where 5 of the 12 items of the standard BNT that had been substituted in the Spanish edition were reincorporated into the test. This decision was based on 3 characteristics of the version.
First, it had already identified and eliminated items that could be problematic when used with Spanish speakers. Second, it had provided 12 alternate, more appropriate items from which to choose. Third, it offered the highest degree of flexibility for STAWG in the selection of items that would be applicable for the use with older Spanish-speaking ADC participants from different nationalities and backgrounds. The latter is important, as most of the studies that have used the official Spanish BNT versions have been based on the samples from Spain and Argentina.
To make the above-mentioned determinations, STAWG conducted an extensive review of the literature in cross-cultural and linguistic issues on the BNT in general, and on individual BNT items in particular. Word frequency was taken into consideration, although a word corpus of Spanish could not be identified that included all BNT items, that was based on a diversified sample of Spanish speakers from various Spanish-speaking countries, that was current, and was based on both written and spoken media.
The Spanish version also includes 8 of the 12 items shown by Serrano et al 53 to have high degree of discrimination for AD versus normal cognition in Spanish-speaking elderly. After a minute filled delay, the participant is asked to recall the story delayed recall. In translating and adapting this test, STAWG paid particular attention to issues of cultural and linguistic equivalence to the English version while aiming for a product that would be acceptable to a diverse population of Spanish speakers in the United States.
This resulted in the substitution of some story elements with new words or phrases. Special attention was also paid to scoring criteria that if translated literally from English would result in scoring errors. The Category Fluency Test is a timed task that assesses the ability to produce words that belong to a specified semantic category. The UDS manual includes specific scoring guidelines to examiners.
For example, in a previous study with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking adults in the United States see Ref. The MMSE is a commonly used screening tool for cognitive impairment.
The test includes a brief assessment of orientation, attention, registration, recall, and language. Modifications were also made so that the items were understandable to ILB of different countries of reference and of varied socio-demographic backgrounds. After considering various options, the repetition phrase, which is one of the more difficult items of the MMSE to translate and adapt, was agreed upon based on its non—region-specific words and on its utility in previous studies with Spanish-speaking elderly see Ref.
Part B is more complex than Part A because, in addition, it assesses cognitive flexibility, requiring the examinee to alternate between numbers and letters in sequence. The UDS version of the test follows standard administration procedures.
New Mexico remained the least populated of these Southwest states. In , the people of California voted to approve the English literacy requirement, which henceforth before part of Article II, Section 1. He went to his teacher late in the harvest season to pick up enough homework to tide him over until the next circuit began, but the teacher insisted on talking with his parents. However, the outcome of this confrontation remained in question for the better part of years. The government launched a campaign urging workers to make personal sacrifices to win the war, and individual businesses and labor unions quickly followed suit. Giovan Battista Pichierri, was also with us participating in a four days retreat-meeting, all about the Divine Will.
It is noted that the TMT is the second most frequently used test by neuropsychologists when assessing Spanish speakers in the United States. Word frequency dictionaries in Spanish were consulted 62 and the verb with higher frequency ie, empezar was selected to facilitate comprehension of the instructions by Spanish speakers with low educational attainment. The Digit Span test is a measure of auditory attention and working memory where the subject is asked to repeat strings of numbers of increasing length.
In the first portion of the test, the subject is required to repeat the numbers in the same order as the examiner. In the second portion of the test, the subject is asked to repeat the numbers in backward fashion. As mentioned by other investigators see Ref. The Digit Symbol test is a timed task that assesses visual attention, scanning, and coding as well as graphomotor speed. The FAQ is an informant-based questionnaire designed to measure the ability of older adults, over the previous 4 weeks, to perform 10 activities of daily living eg, writing checks, paying bills, and balancing a checkbook.
For example, in one of the items, the informant is asked to rate the degree of difficulty of the participant when playing bridge. The NPI is a validated instrument that assesses psychopathology in individuals with dementia. Special consideration was given to the translation of idiomatic expressions in the NPI-Q.
For years, ADCs across the country have collected longitudinal data in a large number of English-speaking older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, AD, or other dementias. Efforts to collect comparable data in Spanish-speaking ADC participants were limited by the lack of a uniform Spanish version of measures in the UDS battery.
The Spanish version of the UDS battery allows consistent administration and scoring of the measures and the collection of data that would allow the characterization of the clinical features of normal and abnormal cognitive aging and of dementia risk factors among ILB in the United States.
The work described in this report is an important first step in furthering our understanding of aging and dementia among ILB. Future studies are needed to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish UDS instruments, including their reliability, validity, discriminative ability, and sensitivity to longitudinal cognitive change, as well as the impact of socio-demographic variables on progression to clinically significant end points.
In addition, the possibility of differential validity of the measures across different groups of ILB residing in the United States needs to be systematically assessed.
Collaboration among ADCs that assess large numbers of Spanish speakers will allow us to characterize ILB, the fastest growing segment of older adults in the United States. Kukull, PhD, Principal Investigator. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct Manly , PhD, Margarita M. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment, aging, neuropsychologic, Spanish, Hispanic.
Open in a separate window. The STAWG effort would be one of translation and adaptation of the instruments rather than literal translation. Procedurally, STAWG would rely on successive review and revision of the working drafts of the instruments instead of backward translation as suggested by Stanfield, 36 and final decisions would be made by consensus. The latter is important given the differential geographic distribution of ILB from different countries of origin across different regions of the United States see above and the resulting dissimilar demographic characteristics of Spanish speakers seen at different ADCs.
STAWG would follow the administration instructions of the English UDS protocol closely, unless it was determined that specific modifications would facilitate comprehension of the instructions by Spanish speakers, particularly those with limited schooling. Special guidelines would be created for UDS measures that presented unique challenges in the translation and adaptation efforts. This particularly applied to the BNT and, to a lesser degree, Logical Memory, which presented the most challenges regarding linguistic equivalence and cultural relevance in relation to the English version and to generalizability when used with Spanish speakers of varied nationalities and backgrounds see below.
Translation and Adaptation of Individual Instruments BNT The BNT is a widely used measure of confrontation naming that consists of 60 black and white line drawings of objects that the examinee is asked to name. Precedence would be given to items that, in conjunction with the other selected items, would provide a range of naming difficulty when used with Spanish speakers. Although in the standard English BNT, the items are presented in ascending order of difficulty, previous agreements with the corresponding publishing companies see above required that the order of presentation of items in the Spanish UDS version followed that of the official Spanish BNT version.
Special consideration would be given to the 12 items of the BNT Spanish version that were shown by Serrano et al 53 to have high sensitivity and specificity in the identification of Spanish-speaking elderly AD patients versus those who were cognitively normal and that, in addition, were not biased by education. Category Fluency Test The Category Fluency Test is a timed task that assesses the ability to produce words that belong to a specified semantic category.
Digit Span The Digit Span test is a measure of auditory attention and working memory where the subject is asked to repeat strings of numbers of increasing length. Digit Symbol The Digit Symbol test is a timed task that assesses visual attention, scanning, and coding as well as graphomotor speed.
The FAQ The FAQ is an informant-based questionnaire designed to measure the ability of older adults, over the previous 4 weeks, to perform 10 activities of daily living eg, writing checks, paying bills, and balancing a checkbook. US Government Printing Office; Shin HB, Bruno R. Language use and English-speaking Ability: The Hispanic population in the United States: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes, the insulin resistance syndrome, and coronary heart disease in an elderly, biethnic population.
Stroke incidence among White, Black, and Hispanic residents of an urban community: Undertreatment of hypertension in older Mexican Americans. J Am Geriatr Soc. Antihypertensive medication use in Hispanic adults: