Neues historisches Lexikon (German Edition)

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Located in the German southeast with an area of 70, square kilometres and its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany, and, with Munich, Bavarias capital and largest city, is the third largest city in Germany, the Duchy of Bavaria dates back to the year In , the Free State of Bavaria re-organised itself on democratic lines after the Second World War, Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the states Catholic majority and conservative traditions.

Bavarians have traditionally been proud of their culture, which includes such as Oktoberfest. The state also has the second largest economy among the German states by GDP figures, modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia. The Bavarians emerged in a north of the Alps, previously inhabited by Celts.

The Bavarians spoke Old High German but, unlike other Germanic groups, rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. They first appear in written sources circa , a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the diocese was named after an ancient Bohemian king, Boiia, in the 14th century BCE.

From about to , the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria and their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibalds successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the frontier against the expansion of Slavs. Tassilos son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between and , after Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as From onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and his son, Theudebert, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in , and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand.

At Theodos death the duchy was divided among his sons, at Hugberts death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo, from neighbouring Alemannia. He was defeated near Augsburg in but continued to rule until his death in , saint Boniface completed the peoples conversion to Christianity in the early 8th century. Bavaria was in ways affected by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. Weimar Republic — Weimar Republic is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state between and The name derives from the city of Weimar, where its constitutional assembly first took place, the official name of the state was still Deutsches Reich, it had remained unchanged since In English the country was known simply as Germany.

A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for the Deutsches Reich was written, in its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, and contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War. The people of Germany blamed the Weimar Republic rather than their leaders for the countrys defeat.

However, the Weimar Republic government successfully reformed the currency, unified tax policies, Weimar Germany eliminated most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles, it never completely met its disarmament requirements, and eventually paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the borders of the republic. In , Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government, the Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Hitlers seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation and these events brought the republic to an end, as democracy collapsed, a single-party state founded the Nazi era.

The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, Germany from 6 February to 11 August , but this name only became mainstream after To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model, the Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellors SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. Only during the s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany, after the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were officially altered to reflect the political changes.

The Weimar Republic retained the Reichsadler, but without the symbols of the former Monarchy and this left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak, tongue and claws and white highlighting. If the Reichs Eagle is shown without a frame, the charge and colors as those of the eagle of the Reichs coat of arms are to be used.

The patterns kept by the Federal Ministry of the Interior are decisive for the heraldic design, the artistic design may be varied for each special purpose. The achievements and signs of movement were mostly done away with after its downfall. Around , centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe came to a halt, a series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine of — and the Black Death, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare, France and England experienced serious peasant uprisings, such as the Jacquerie and the Peasants Revolt, as well as over a century of intermittent conflict in the Hundred Years War.

To add to the problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Western Schism.

Collectively these events are called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Despite these crises, the 14th century was also a time of progress in the arts. Following a renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts that took root in the High Middle Ages, combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing, which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning. These two things would lead to the Protestant Reformation. Toward the end of the period, the Age of Discovery began, the rise of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in , eroded the last remnants of the Byzantine Empire and cut off trading possibilities with the east.

Europeans were forced to seek new trading routes, leading to the expedition of Columbus to the Americas in and their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations. The changes brought about by these developments have led scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and beginning of modern history. However, the division is artificial, since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European society. As a result there was continuity between the ancient age and the modern age.

Some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages at all, but rather see the period of the Middle Ages transitioning to the Renaissance. Tripartite periodization became standard after the German historian Christoph Cellarius published Universal History Divided into an Ancient, Medieval, for 18th-century historians studying the 14th and 15th centuries, the central theme was the Renaissance, with its rediscovery of ancient learning and the emergence of an individual spirit.

Neighbouring civilisations were the first to follow, most other civilisations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no records from human prehistory. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century and this article is concerned with human prehistory as defined here above.

There are separate articles for the history of the Earth.

However, for the race as a whole, prehistory ends when recorded history begins with the accounts of the ancient world around the 4th millennium BC. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around BC, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more recently.

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The three-age system is the periodization of prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies, Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age. The notion of prehistory began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word primitive to describe societies that existed before written records, the first use of the word prehistory in English, however, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in The main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences.

This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history, human population geneticists and historical linguists are also providing valuable insight for these questions. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology, restricted to material processes, remains and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous.

Because of this, reference terms that use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. Palaeolithic means Old Stone Age, and begins with the first use of stone tools, the Paleolithic is the earliest period of the Stone Age.

The early part of the Palaeolithic is called the Lower Palaeolithic, evidence of control of fire by early humans during the Lower Palaeolithic Era is uncertain and has at best limited scholarly support. The most widely accepted claim is that H. The use of fire enabled early humans to cook food, provide warmth, Early Homo sapiens originated some , years ago, ushering in the Middle Palaeolithic.

It appoints scholars whose research has contributed considerably to the increase of knowledge within their subject, the general goal of the academy is the promotion of interdisciplinary encounters and contacts and the cooperation of representatives of different subjects. Count Sigmund von Haimhausen was the first president, the Academys foundation charter specifically mentions the Parnassus Boicus, an earlier learned society. Today, the Academy is still divided into two classes, but the classes are now the Class for Philosophy and History and the Class for Mathematics and the Natural Sciences.

In each class, the number of members is limited to However, ordinary members at or over the age of 70 are not counted towards this limit, first president was the chairman of the Mint and Mining Commission, Sigmund, Count of Haimhausen. For the pursuit of long-term projects, the Academy forms Commissions, at present,37 Commissions employ more than persons. Its first rector was Christopher Mendel of Steinfels, who became bishop of Chiemsee.

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In the period of German humanism, the universitys academics included names such as Conrad Celtes, the theologian Johann Eck also taught at the university. From to , the university was influenced by the Jesuits, the Jesuit Petrus Canisius served as rector of the university.

At the end of the 18th century, the university was influenced by the Enlightenment, in , the Prince-Elector Maximilianv IV Joseph moved the university to Landshut, due to French aggression that threatened Ingolstadt during the Napoleonic Wars. The Minister of Education, Maximilian von Montgelas, initiated a number of reforms sought to modernize the rather conservative. The locals were critical of the number of Protestant professors Maximilian. They were dubbed the Nordlichter and especially physician Johann Nepomuk von Ringseis was quite angry about them, in the second half of the 19th century, the university rose to great prominence in the European scientific community, attracting many of the worlds leading scientists.

In , Adele Hartmann became the first woman in Germany to earn the Habilitation, during the Third Reich, academic freedom was severely curtailed. In the White Rose group of anti-Nazi students conducted their campaign of opposition to the National Socialists at this university, the university has continued to be one of the leading universities of West Germany during the Cold War and in the post-reunification era.

Hyperlink — In computing, a hyperlink, or simply a link, is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking, tapping, or hovering. A hyperlink points to a document or to a specific element within a document. The text that is linked from is called anchor text, a software system that is used for viewing and creating hypertext is a hypertext system, and to create a hyperlink is to hyperlink. A user following hyperlinks is said to navigate or browse the hypertext, the document containing a hyperlink is known as its source document.

For example, in a reference work such as Wikipedia, many words. Hyperlinks are often used to implement reference mechanisms such as tables of contents, footnotes, bibliographies, indexes, letters, in some hypertext hyperlinks can be bidirectional, they can be followed in two directions, so both ends act as anchors and as targets. More complex arrangements exist, such as many-to-many links, another possibility is transclusion, for which the link target is a document fragment that replaces the link anchor within the source document.

Not only persons browsing the document follow hyperlinks, they may also be followed automatically by programs, a program that traverses the hypertext, following each hyperlink and gathering all the retrieved documents is known as a Web spider or crawler. An inline link displays remote content without the need for embedding the content, the remote content may be accessed with or without the user selecting the link.

An inline link may display a modified version of the content, for instance, instead of an image, the full content will then usually be available on demand, as is the case with print publishing software — e. This allows for file sizes and quicker response to changes when the full linked content is not needed.

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An anchor hyperlink is a bound to a portion of a document—generally text. For instance, it may also be a hot area in an image, one way to define it is by a list of coordinates that indicate its boundaries. For example, a map of Africa may have each country hyperlinked to further information about that country. A separate invisible hot area interface allows for swapping skins or labels within the hot areas without repetitive embedding of links in the various skin elements.

Tim Berners-Lee saw the possibility of using hyperlinks to link any information to any information over the Internet. Digitization — Digitizing or digitization is the representation of an object, image, sound, document or signal by generating a series of numbers that describe a discrete set of its points or samples. The result is called digital representation or, more specifically, an image, for the object. Unlike analog data, which typically suffers some loss of quality each time it is copied or transmitted, digital data can, in theory and this is why it is a favored way of preserving information for many organisations around the world.

The term digitization is often used when diverse forms of information, such as text, sound, Digital information exists as one of two digits, either 0 or 1. These are known as bits and the sequences of 0s and 1s that constitute information are called bytes. Analog signals are continuously variable, both in the number of values of the signal at a given time, as well as in the number of points in the signal in a given period of time.

Digitization occurs in two parts, Discretization The reading of an analog signal A, and, at time intervals.

Each such reading is called a sample and may be considered to have infinite precision at this stage, Quantization Samples are rounded to a set of numbers. In general, these can occur at the time, though they are conceptually distinct.

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It was not until the middle of the 18th century that a widely accepted standard was created, until about , standard German was mainly a written language, in urban northern Germany, the local Low German dialects were spoken. Available for download now. Already available in the past, the numerous visual representations of sources have been massively extended. The locals were critical of the number of Protestant professors Maximilian. The ease with which the Franks suppressed various risings gives colour to the supposition that family rather than the revolt of an oppressed people motivated the rebellions.

A series of integers can be transformed into an analog output that approximates the original analog signal. Such a transformation is called a DA conversion, the sampling rate and the number of bits used to represent the integers combine to determine how close such an approximation to the analog signal a digitization will be. The term is used to describe the scanning of analog sources into computers for editing.

Deutsche Vaterlandspartei (DVLP), 1917/18

In this last case, as in normal photos, sampling rate refers to the resolution of the image, Digitization is also used to describe the process of populating databases with files or data. Digitizing may also used in the field of apparel, where an image may be recreated with the help of embroidery digitizing software tools and this machine code is fed into an embroidery machine and applied to the fabric. The most supported format is DST file, apparel companies also digitize clothing patterns Analog signals are continuous electrical signals, digital signals are non-continuous. Analog signal can be converted to digital signal by ADC, nearly all recorded music has been digitized.

The conversion process of analog to digital consists of two processes, sampling and quantizing, Digitization of personal multimedia such as home movies, slides, and photographs is a popular method of preserving and sharing older repositories. Integrated Authority File — The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues.

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It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly also by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements.

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It also comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format. Wiki as never seen before with video and photo galleries, discover something new today.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bearbeitungsstand , retrieved 9 February Retrieved from " https: Encyclopedias of history Online encyclopedias History of Bavaria. Pages using deprecated image syntax. Subordinate to the nobles we find the freeborn and then the freedmen, the law divided the country into gaits or counties, under their counts, assisted by judges responsible for declaring the law 2.


In , the 2nd Orthographical Conference ended with a standardization of the German language in its written form 3. Its beginnings date back to the 16th century, the area of collection emphasis musicology of the German Research Foundation is overseen by this department 4. For example, in , HarperCollins limited the number of times one of its e-books could be lent in a public library 5.

Bavaria was in ways affected by the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century 6. The achievements and signs of movement were mostly done away with after its downfall 7. Available for download now. Neues historisches Lexikon German Edition Apr 11, Historisches Stadtlexikon von Teterow German Edition.

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