By now, this canon incorporated a noticeably large number of painters. The basement as a whole was, therefore, intended to represent the solid base of Surrealism, its greatness and cultural gravitas across time, reaching from the past into the present and showing it to be a distinguished and living alternative tradition. The actual show opened with what was, on paper, the second part. Visitors ascended to the second level by climbing a staircase, consisting of 21 books; or rather, their painted spines and, as the actual stairs contained fewer than 21 steps, some were painted two to a step.
The Bible book Revelations and the card Judgement formed the twentieth stair. An offhand comment made in showed that Breton had been reading the apocalyptic Bible books of John and Daniel at that time too. Faced with a harsh political reality, he found succour in historical radicalism and dissent, with a distinctly mystical and remarkably Christian bent. It is clear that the outbreak of war led him to take up heterodox thinkers whose works combine a unique view of terrestrial matters with transpersonal transcend- ent experiences, captured in particular language that may seem absurd or poetical or a combination of the two.
His turn to Christian heterodoxy can be related to the Second Manifesto and its call for occultation and valida- tion of historical heterodox forms of thought, including the occult. Breton located Fourier at the crossroads of these domains. The tarot staircase is the first occasion that work is explicitly mentioned by Breton.
La Genealogie De Lhomme Download PDF EPUB - Epub Book, Download Ebook: La généalogie de l'homme, édition intégrale, Annie. de l'homme, édition intégrale, Annie Besant, Ink book, Littérature ésotérique, «Il est. Alfreds Basic Adult Piano Course French Edition Lesson Book 2 · Lecole Est. Plusieurs versions de la Septante furent ainsi constituées, creusant non . pour la chrétienté, un statut d'archive, de texte témoin, d'arbre généalogique du Christ. . et de l'homme un être libre responsable de ses actes, libéré de la prédestination. Le Texte Coranique se constitue comme la version intégrale du Livre.
Duchamp had already been familiar with The Chemical Wedding for a long time, as had Max Ernst, and we might discern the influence of both or either of these artists here. If the stairs together with the planned basement make one thing clear, it is that Romanticism was higher on the surrealist priority list than ever before and that the esoteric and occult references occur only in romantic context.
Indeed, his obsession with the very themes, things and people that had so fascinated the romantics made his Surrealism something of a neo-Romanticism, domi- nated by nostalgic motives. Moreover, earlier Surrealism had modelled itself upon a rather vaguely defined Romanticism; now, post-Viatte, neo-Romantic Surrealism was looking directly into the mirror of occult Romanticism. Hieronymus Bosch, while evidently deserving a place there for his style and iconography alone, had just been painted an alchemist in a publication.
Their further associations with religious mysticism Blake and Christian heresy another publication of the time claimed Bosch was an adamite30 , for instance, only added fire to the idea that revolutionary heterodoxy is comprised of occultism and mysticism. I find it hardly surprising that Breton was turning his Surrealism in those directions too. Still, I hope to have made clear by now that his esotericism was mostly, if not predominantly, mediated.
Sources in the tarot stairs, such as The Chemical Wedding, Swedenborg and, perhaps, Eckhart, are few in respect to the other sources, which are mainly romantic. The only directly employed i. I find it significant that only the occult tarot served an overtly occult purpose. There he had focused on one card only, embedded fully in the typically Bretonian context of love and Woman and given an entirely personal symbolical interpretation. If things had been intellectual, even cerebral, before, this level was visceral. The room itself was shaped as an oval and reminiscent of an egg or womb; soft, wet and organically shaped, it was intended to suggest primeval and feminine sur- roundings, confronting modern urban man with a natural environment he had, apparently, become estranged from.
Religious and bourgeois superstitions should certainly be overcome, but the superstitiously functioning primitive mind is a necessary instrument for true mythopoeia. The art exhibited served to either overcome superstition or inspire it, or both, being mainly taboo-figures and totemic objects. Artificial grass covered the floor, in the middle of which stood a billiard table.
Creating an initiatory trajectory and simultaneously subverting it is a uniquely surrealist thing to do. Duchamp even made the point explicitly that the labyrinth had no occult meaning. The hard and pointed forms of the sculpture reflect the war, as does the cavernous face, with its facial features displaced, half of them lost and the other half scattered to the belly, where a shattered mirror shows us our broken selves.
But there are also signs of hope, and these are probably alchemical in nature: In each stood an altar created by a surreal- ist major artist. The altars were dedicated to a mythical character, being, or thing created by a surrealist or revered predecessor. The altars were, primarily, a celebration of surrealist heroes. One real person received an altar: Three animals were allotted altars too: Its sign was Virgo.
The Magician is here identified as the surrealist magician, as Brauner also considered himself. He stands between water, at his feet, and fire, the volcano exploding from his head. The High Priestess is identified as universal woman, the spiritual counterpart to the Magician. The staff the Magician holds in his left hand has two ends, one with a sun and the other with a moon-symbol; gendered signs the combination of which again signifies union.
The altar as a whole, dedicated as it is to the Bird Superior, pays homage to Ernst, another surrealist who had come to consider himself a magician in the early s. The exhibition also included a thirteenth altar, by outsider artist Maurice Baskine , which, as the altar for the Gila monster was never realised, functioned in practice as the twelfth. Yet, I emphasise that there was nothing occult about the altars themselves. He witnessed a voodoo ritual and bought paintings by and wrote an essay about Haitian artist Hector Hippolyte , third-generation voodoo priest. It was never actually realised.
Where does initiation begin and where does it end? Victor Brauner, The Lovers, The beginning of the end? Or initiation into… liberty An incomplete trajectory can also speak of the initiation failing. Were we to treat it as a prediction, it is safe to say that it came true, as generally the show was not well received and many press reviews were critical or even outrightly negative. Even those who were less critical were still baffled by what was perceived as the escapism inherent in this yearning for myth.
Myth was considered limiting, nostalgic, conservative or even regressive, and was burdened with unsavoury political overtones. For the communist intellectuals who dominated the political left, at least, it confirmed that Surrealism had become peripheral and irrelevant, a sentiment widely shared. Breton had totally misunderstood the cultural Zeitgeist, was the opinion. But, then again, had he?
To Adorno, magic is based upon erroneous connections: Clearly, these are the correspondences Breton was after, I find. Surrealists do too, I might add. From where the surrealists were stand- ing, true knowledge is generated irrationally, and what better irrational mind than the superstitious one?
We have arrived at what, I think, is the crux of the matter: However, where he valued magic and the irrational positively, other intellectuals of the left regarded it with distaste and, by extension, the position of Surrealism became increasingly marginalised. In fact, it became more or less untenable because of a further development: Finally, too, right-wing war-time political movements such as Nazism and fascism had come to be associated with occultism too.
Let me just refer […] to the invaluable observation made by no less a rationalist than Frazer: Indeed, Breton judged that the bleak attitude of realism and rationalism of the post-war era was only another illusion and possibly a continuation of the misguided opinions that had led to the war in the first place. The show was a deliberate attack, I argue, on the rationalist conscious- ness-affirming here-and-now policies of both state and leftist intellectuals. Instead of answering the post-war reality of the time with only more rational real- ism, Surrealism offered the realism of the irrational: Rather than a proponent of escapism or of mysticism, as he was accused of being, I find Breton to be a realist, who offered society the alternative sur reality he felt it desperately needed to move beyond the quotidian.
This view permeated the show and I think we can safely say that fellow old guard-surrealists were in full agreement with him. The Hall of Superstition and the labyrinth represented the present, evoking, on the one hand, the deluded state of mind of the public and the magical mind-set that the surrealists had already attained, on the other. That this set-up might not please everyone is self-evident, and something Breton counted on from the start; after all, I would say that initia- tion implies, by necessity, selection and not all, or perhaps not even most, candidates will make it to the final stage.
By its very nature, occultation cannot be for everyone, but that does not impede the creation of the new myth for the common good anyway. He chose the occult patterning device he had become most familiar with, the tarot, for the most prominent position. Surrealism, by this time, was a combination of those things and, therefore, esotericism was part of it too. The very fact that, for Breton, the esoteric tradition was something beholden to the past, and not connected to anything or anyone in the twentieth century, shows that he hardly considered it a living tradition valuable on its own terms; hence my point that the only relevance is its Romanticism.
Various occult elements never became more than a means to a non-occult end. When modelling the practice of Surrealism upon mediums and clairvoyants in the late s, he made it clear that there could be no other realms than the terrestrial. When turning Surrealism into a corresponding cryptogram in the s, he emphasised that all connections existed only in the mind. When the active potency of the surrealist to effect change in the world by means of his alternative worldview became an issue during the war, the surrealist became a magician and the magical worldview, already introduced in the s in direct connection with myth and primarily primitivism, now came to dominate.
Most of all, however, it cemented his Surrealism as neo-Romanticism. I think contemporary occultism hardly existed for Breton; he connected it almost exclusively to the nineteenth century. For all that Breton was the only founding member of Surrealism left by this time, in many respects he still functioned as the gatekeeper for, at least, Parisian Surrealism. With its celebration of Freudian obsessions and faith in desire as the omnipotent force, E. Even as its members changed, Surrealism retreated to its core points.
Breton once again turned the table on his critics by proclaiming in that the way forward lay backward: For an avant-gardiste, Breton was always markedly obsessed with the past, I f ind, and he was not the only one. Afterlives of selected pasts in the present fascinated the surrealists, as is evinced not only by their constant recourse to great heroes of the past whether real or imagined but also by their preference for Parisian structures with great historical significance, such as the Tour Saint-Jacques or Porte Saint-Denis. Nostalgia reigned; the movement was now turning into neo-Surrealism.
I find it hardly surprising, therefore, that this period the s is characterised by a further investment in various occultisms too;81 specifically, magic, alchemy and correspondences. There is, therefore, a nostalgic character to them already. Breton was indeed going backwards, in time certainly, but his concepts have a pastness about them too.
Esotericism had always been related to a suppressed past, but now this theme was intensified. Alchemy and magic did become more prominent in the surrealist discourse, but the essential things had already been said about them by , the most public exposition of his view. Things were not static, however; even though the essential positions may have been old news, a deeper investment in and more extended investigation of magic, alchemy and correspondences still occurred. Note that my focus upon Breton and France is limiting in this regard; later, fringe-surrealist groups who were very much occultly informed, such as around the journals Fantasmagie based in Belgium or Melmoth Great-Britain , are not discussed here.
Before moving on, I would point out one element that was entirely original to late Surrealism: While references to it are few and incidental, I mention it, nonetheless, as the allusion to sexual magic is one of only a very few connections to twentieth-century occultism, and an important and controversial part of it too. Magia Sexualis is a translation by occultist Maria de Naglowska , who resided in Paris, of original documents by American medium, occultist and sexual magical pioneer P. This is an entrenching of position in two ways. The initial steps in this direction were taken with the invention of objective chance, which could also act through objects, and the invention of and increasing emphasis upon the surrealist object in the s.
The survey consisted of many questions, ranging from how one would examine an art object that is or contains magic; how the magician, who sees the real, and the modern artist, who sees the imaginary, relate to each other as magicians and by what means they both enchant the real; to placing a number of art objects in a decreasing order of magical potential.
Another essential surrealist concern, love, was similarly incorporated into Bretonian magic. The fine fleur of his romantic and symbolist heroes were included in their book. Also, in the introduction the authors discuss how fruitful the interchanges between Romanticism and occultism were, and how the romantics played an important role in the transmission of esoteric thought. He implies that magic, defined as acting upon irrational correspondences, was already a part of Surrealism in its early days; we find here a tendency to project occultism into early Surrealism that can be found in other late works of Breton as well.
One in the other: Analogical metaphors and other games Art magic depends on irrational correspondences, like so many things in Surrealism. Such decoding of the ir- rational is what Surrealism and occultism share: Logical thinking is incapable of establishing such a connection, which it deems a priori impossible. Poetic analogy is fundamentally different from mystical analogy in that it in no way presupposes the existence of an invisible universe that, from beyond the veil of the visible world, is trying to reveal itself. The process of poetic analogy is entirely empirical […] it remains without any effort within the sensible even the sensual realm and it shows no propensity to lapse into the supernatural.
With all this emphasis upon suprarational analogic relations, fundamental correspondences and essential qualities, it is not hard to see why, in the s, many French occultists and occult scholars felt such an affinity for Bretonian Surrealism, or why many of the surrealists of that time, includ- ing Breton, thought that what they were doing was so closely related to occultism or esotericism. To decrypt, however, also supposes the facility to encrypt.
Therefore, in the s, alchemy, or to be more precise the language of alchemy, became codified as a marvellously poetical language that enlightens and mystifies at the same time. The interest in Alchemy of the Word had been present in Surrealism from the outset. Words could be transformed. Language was taken literally and considered material. Now, however, Alchemy of the Word became more defined and specific. By the s, Breton and his surrealists were actively appropriating alchemical language as a rhetorical device, and The Chemical Wedding is considered a textbook of mystifying language.
Many, from Novalis to Baudelaire, integrated alchemical tropes, themes and references into their work. It was embraced by the artistic and liter- ary avant-gardes, who loved to play complex language games, a continuing of earlier romantic practice. Firstly, games were increasingly accorded a central role in surrealist practice as irrational knowledge-generating mechanisms.
That, in turn, stoked the fire of alchemy of the word as well, certainly after the second half of the s. Phonetic properties are often very important in alchemical language. There is a third reason: Breton came into contact with the group of al- chemists and occultists around Canseliet.
To sum up, it is my argument that the increased emphasis in Surrealism upon language, in particular upon language games predicated upon meta- phors and analogies, and phonetic qualities, as well as the appropriation of alchemical texts as modern poetry and vice versa, is directly responsible for the seemingly sudden emphasis upon alchemy and the language of the birds.
In , Breton asked: What was it all about then? Nothing less than the rediscovery of the secret of language whose elements would then cease to float like jetsam on the surface of a dead sea. Occultists are, therefore, of interest because their practices and secret languages run parallel to the objectives of the surrealists, and because they have hailed the Word as magical, but they have hardly been the trailblazers. Everything had come, and was coming, full circle: In fact, it was a boiling cauldron in which concepts from occultism but also, for instance, psychoanalysis and anthropology were dissolved, only to be reshaped into essentially surrealist ideas.
Everything that caught the attention of Breton and his fellow surrealists was added to this cauldron, the result of which was a solution in which everything is connected and combined. And what, then, is the binding agent? Only when the surrealist has fully integrated that other into himself has he attained true surreality. He celebrated Tristan as a heterodox socialist thinker who wrote poetically, even almost automatically on occasion, and who happened to be a woman.
The case for occultism is the same. At most, it makes him a romantic, as it is invariably in that context that such luminaries are mentioned. Breton was not an occult adept and his movement was not a celebration of occultism. In my view, Breton was very adept at reading about, referring to and appropriating concepts from. His movement was a celebration of Romanticism and Symbolism, including its occult elements and traces of earlier esotericism. Selected occult thought, ideas and famous occultists, alchemists and magicians, are celebrated as heterodox and interesting in Bretonian Surrealism.
The symbolical and poetical language both verbal and visual associated with alchemy, magic, and occultism clearly added to their appeal. The very fact that the revered precursors were influenced by certain occult and esoteric concepts made it inevitable that Breton would turn to such things too.
In the s, the concepts of automatism and artistic clairvoyance were defined in Bretonian Surrealism. Being in an automatic state could be paramount to becoming a seer. Discarding the possibilities of communication with the dead or outside agents, as well as actually seeing the future or being otherwise clairvoyant, the surrealists interpreted any and all actions by mediums, as well as those of madmen and women, as automatic and, therefore, inspirational.
While the last practice was discontinued, the former carried on. Artistic works by mediums and clairvoyants, but also the mad, hysteric and childish, was considered auto- matically created and possibly visionary and, therefore, admired. In the s, the surrealist cor- responding universe was formed and the automatic material was slowly, but surely, replaced by myths, legends, quests and fairytales.
The primitive, or magical, worldview, in which the links between disparate and seemingly unconnected events or objects turn out to be meaningful, became the dominant surrealist view. In the early s, nineteenth-century revolutionary thought and occult thought were added to this mix. Indeed, around , Bretonian Surrealism made a distinct turn towards the occult. This was part of a larger turn towards the heterodox, prompted by the rising political tensions and the eventual outbreak of the Second World War.
In exile, the idea that the surrealist artist was a magician, which had been brewing for a while, came to full fruition. Notably, the surrealist magician retained the recourse to automatism as a valid avenue for generating knowledge and art. Desire, and primarily the love for Woman, remained the omnipotent force. Love works magically; that is to say, in non-rational ways. The surrealist-magician effects change, for instance by means of his art. He strives to connect by irrational means signs and signifiers, thereby creating the surrealist corresponding universe as such but also functioning within it.
The surrealist-magician assumes a magical mind-set at will, but should strive to share it with the world at large. After all, reason and rational- ism have led to total political failure, and it is the magical mind and its feminine capacity for making irrational connections that will liberate mankind. To support this undertaking, one should look to nineteenth- century and earlier heterodox thought, preferably of a spiritual or occult bent, but also radically utopian, and even just absurd generally. Texts serve best, as the prime tool of the surrealist-magician is, after all, language.
Language is the prima materia, the capillary tissue of the universe of Surrealism. By means of the metaphor, and later analogy, the Bretonian surrealist uncovers irrational correspondences, and also covers them up again. The role of occultism in the long history of Bretonian Surrealism is clear. Occultism is employed, I argue, in a similar manner: Finally, I feel confident to say that there has also been a mirror-movement: The Occultation of Surrealism 1.
A coterie of young admirers, including Breton, appropriated it in Poet Yvan Goll pseud. Hopkins, Duchamp; Kuni, Brauner. Find my discussion of this book and why its central thesis is mistaken in Bauduin, The Occultation, 33, Breton, Conversations, 56, , Breton, ; Waldberg, e. Although I have partly followed this model, the turn of the s as well as the later period is just as relevant for my story. Belgian artist and poet Maeterlinck is also mentioned, for whom occultism was a very important influence, although it is unclear how much of that was known to the proto-surrealists in , if at all.
Breton, Free, ; I have paraphrased Breton somewhat here. Emmanuel Swedenborg was a Christian visionary; Rose et al. Also, Amiot, Baudelaire; Arnold. Bate, 98; Cellier, passim. Note that the few references Breton makes to Viatte are all to Victor Hugo and his possible consultation of Les sources occultes is speculation on my part.
Breton, Arcanum, , ; idem, Conversations, Also Cellier, ; Ham- mond, Charles Fourier was a radical philosopher, who devel- oped various theories of utopian socialism that became intermingled with occult thought. In the end, he suggested the phrase to Alexandrian for his journal.
Belton, ; McIntosh, Warlick, Max Ernst, Belton, ; Warlick, Max Ernst, On page the same book is mentioned by Bataille. It is, at this point, impossible to say what would have fascinated the sur- realists whether Bretonian or Bataillian more: They may not have been known by anyone other than the author of the article in question. Caillois refers in Minotaure 5 Maury and Mythes, cultes et religion French translation, by Andrew Lang.
Choucha, ; see also Albers. See also Clinton, Warlick, Max Ernst, Ch. See also Roudinesco, Rabinovitch, , , Fulcanelli, possible pseudonym of Jean Julien Champagne Szulakowska, 38; Warlick, Max Ernst, Amadou was primarily a specialist of the eighteenth- century theosopher Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin, but published a variety of works on occultism and modern literary movements in France too. Flournoy, From India; Nouvelles; Esprits. Breton, Free, and n Essais de science maudite, II.
Le Temple de Satan. Wirth, Stanislas de Guaita. Faracovi, ; Bonnet et al. As discussed in Bauduin, Science. Psychic automatism and surrealist research 1. Breton, The Lost, Durozoi, ; Polizzotti, Revolution, ; cf. Breton, Nadja, 31; cf. Gauld, , , Ch. Crabtree, From, , , Crabtree, From, ; Monroe, ; Edelman, Voyantes, 19ff.
Hanegraaff, New Age, As analysed by Baier, for instance; spec. Also Monroe, ff; Owen, The Place, e. Crabtree, From, ; Baier, ; Gauld, More on the construction of hysteria as a spectacle in Didi-Huberman; Andriopoulos, Possessed, ; Herman, , Crabtree, From, ; Didi-Huberman, passim but specifically ; Ellenberger, , ; Pick, Gordon, 51ff; Grimes, See also Andriopoulos, Possessed, ; Nelson, As Breton and others did not read German, they had to make do with French introductions to the ideas of Freud, accompanied by incomplete and one-sided translated abstracts.
Compare Lomas, The Haunted, Roudinesco, 5; Bate, 58; Legge, Max Ernst, 11ff. Breton and Aragon had trained at the same hospital in Paris in Flournoy, From, , Cited in McNab, This largely parallels the argument of Carr and Zanelli, See also the letters exchanged by Freud and Breton, in Breton, Commu- nicating, See Myers, Human, I: Browder, 65; Conley, Robert Desnos, 3; Roudinesco, Polizzotti, Revolution, ; Pouget, For instance, Desnos predicted the death of almost everybody who attended the sessions.
London se fait a priori peu d'illusions sur le populo: Mooie verzameling uit vooral eind 19de en begin 20ste eeuw. L'angoisse de la Mort. In-plano 29 x 39 cm , 1 blad, met een grote houtsnede die de prijzen van de loterij voorstelt, erboven vier wapenschilden, van de Sebastiaansgilde, de koning, de stad en een ander wapen. Idem, and Martha Noel Evans trans. Among them were many African-Americans, whose population in the San Francisco-Oakland area grew sixfold during the war.
Conley, Desnos, 29, Breton, Nadja, ; see also Breton, Manifestoes, Breton, Surrealism and Painting, Carrouges, Basic, ; cf. It is unknown if Breton knew of this letter. Andriopoulos, Possessed, ; Gordon, See also Edelman, Voyantes, To give one example: Conley, Automatic, 8, ; Jordanova. Polizzotti, Revolution, ; ulterior motives may have played a part. Cited in Conley, Desnos, Foster, Compulsive, 2, For those of abnormal mind, such as mental patients, assuming and dis- carding of mental illnesses at will is not the case, which shows that for all that the Surrealists conflated subject and object in many instances, they never considered themselves to be patients.
Actual mental instability was not tolerated at all within Surrealism, see further Matthews, Surrealism, Insanity. Mediums and seers 1. Breton, Nadja, 81, plate Breton, Nadja, 93 note.
Breton, The Lost, 91; cf. Breton, Manifestoes, , Painting should be understood here as a general category including drawing, sculpture, etc. In , Breton wrote: This essay appeared in LRS 4 , 6 , 7 and , and was published as Surrealism and Painting in Breton, Surrealism and Painting, 4, and see also xvii-xxx. Krauss, Origi- nality, Breton, Surrealism and Painting, 1. Breton, Surrealism and Painting, 1, paraphrased.
No other sense even came close to the superiority of the eye in Surrealism.
In fact, apart from hearing, no other sense is even acknowledged. Freeman and Musgrove, spec. Breton, Manifestoes, emphasis original. Rimbaud, Complete, emphasis original. See also Taylor, Sources, Clearly, the issue of the Romantic poet-seer is much more complex and the process of its formation much more intricate than I can present here. Be- sides the sources mentioned above and elsewhere, see also Amiot, Baude- laire; Mayer; Rosenblum.
In the s Breton would begin to de- scribe other symbolists and romantics as seers too, such as Huysmans and Hugo. Breton, Nadja French ed. Breton, Nadja, plate 32 and Breton, Nadja, 74, Nadja takes Breton to this sign and compulsively touches it; Breton, Nadja, 85 and There is no doubt this was intentional. Breton, Nadja, 80 and , plates 20, For an analysis of the photographs in Nadja, see Bate, My argument here is based upon Bate, 92ff.
A review in Art et decoration January cited in Bajac, Ray, The Surrealist, Sass, Madness, 44 and Breton, Nadja, 32, plate 7 on See La subversion ff. See also Eburne, Surrealism, , spec. The film can be seen online at www. Time-indications are from this ver- sion. Short, The Age, Vision is further stressed in the film through shots of revolving mirrors and reflecting cubes and the resulting play of dots and blotches of light; as well as through the use of techniques such as soft focus. This portrait and its far-reaching visionary consequences are discussed in the next chapter. Story of the Eye.
Aragon, Paris, emphasis original. I have paraphrased Breton, Manifestoes, Rimbaud, A Season; , based also upon the translation by Paul Schmidt. Oeuvres, 28 my translation. Translation mine, partly based upon Lippard, Minotaure , Breton, Nadja, plates 29, 32, 34 on pages , , This may be because of the symbolist validation of mediumism and mediumistic art, as discussed by Keshavjee. The origin of all the reproduced works has been researched by Dichter et al.
Breton resigned in but remained an active proponent of outsider art. Although Outsider art and art brut are not entirely the same, for the discus- sion here they can be understood as interchangeable. I refer to the art of marginal and untrained groups, which the avant-garde favoured so much, as outsider art un-capitalised.
Although there are more criteria, I consider these three the most relevant. Such criteria are often rather artificial. For instance, Desmoulins was hardly untaught but a trained and celebrated engraver and painter, while Sardou was hardly of a simple background but in fact highly educated and a rather famous dramatist. See also Harris, , n6. For the complex issue of surrealist politics see Harris spec. Breton, Manifestoes, caps and emphasis original.
Agrippa, Three, ; Bonnet et al. Remarkably enough Bonnet et al. Also, Bonnet et al. Breton may have had access to a Chacornac edition of that in- cluded the wrongly attributed fourth book; Bonnet et al. Plate 7 is also reproduced but not discussed by Breton. Givry, Witchcraft, ; he reproduces plates 3 and Breton, Manifestoes, ; Bonnet et al.
This point is also made a couple of times by Bonnet et al.. Maranatha is originally an Aramaic term and can be found in the Bible. His use of it as a malediction is consistent with occult practices of the time. Here I diverge from Bonnet et al. Breton, Manifestoes, , citing Choisnard, Influence, , although he men- tions the original essay from , which in fact dates from ; Bonnet et al. Breton, Mad, ; idem, Selections, Breton, Free, , One should note, as Hilke does , that although Breton treats all these predictions as one of a kind, they are not really alike.
This is the second aphorism from The Emerald Tablet, which has many translations; Kahn. Breton, Surrealism and Painting, 22 my emphasis. Givry mentions The Emerald Tablet and this specific aphorism very briefly Witchcraft, , It has been suggested that Ernst was familiar with the Tablet, but whether he was pointed to it by Breton, or the other way around, if at all, remains unclear; Warlick, Max Ernst, Mark is a young Gay that the pleasure of nipples puts in a trance.
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Oorspronkelijke linnen uitgeversband met goudopdruk wat sleet aan rug en hoekjes. Originele aquarel, 31 x 20 cm, gesigneerd en gedateerd. De kerk is een tekening op bruin kraftpapier, in twee gescheurd. Alexeieff 21 compositions en noir dont 11 h. Originele aquarel, 20 x 28 cm, getiteld, gesigneerd en gedateerd. Ontwerp voor de omslag van Revolver, jaargang 16, nr. Dit tijdschrift is bijgevoegd. Collage en originele aquarel, 43 x 27 cm, gesigneerd en gedateerd. Dit boek is bijgevoegd, gesigneerd door de illustrator.
Getekend in potlood door Vanriet en met zijn stempel links boven. Paris, La Jeune Parque, Paris, Georges Briffaut, Au moins soyez discret! Originele aquarel, 40 x 25 cm, gesigneerd en gedateerd in potlood. Ontwerp voor een boekcover van Jef Geeraerts, niet uitgevoerd. Oorspronkelijke uitgeverskartonnage, wat vergeeld. Het zeldzame debuut van de schrijver. Kartonnen band, stofwikkel, rug verkleurd, klein scheurtje zonder verlies, portret van de schrijver door W. Hermans op de flap. De oplage bestaat uit exemplaren, dit is nr. Gebonden door boekbinderij Jansen te Edegem.
En feuilles, sous chemise. Sans le dernier vol. Perrichon Livres en feuilles, sauf le vol. Poe traduits par Baudelaire: On y joint le brouillon ms. Brangwyn is not known to have visited Poland and current research suggests that a large proportion of the etchings were based on photographs. Illustrations de Maurice Leloir. Paris, Compagnie de Saint-Gobain, En feuilles, sous couv. Hatherell en couleurs hors texte. Avec une traduction du psaume XXI par P.
Claudel et des gravures de Daragnes Paris, Imprimerie Shueisha , ca. Tirage de luxe de ex. Illustrations en couleurs de J. Avec de nombreuses lettres facs. Les fleurs du mal. La lithographie originale en front. For over 40 years his art has transported us to Provence, a region of rolling hills, warm evenings, reach colors and the bounty of the earth.
La vie de Marie. Gusman et Paul Baudier. Qqs faibles petites rouss. Alois Kolb was a Viennese artist and book illustrator known for his painterly etchings. Sous le pont Mirabeau. Le courage de ses actes. Limited edition of copies, one of the on Dutch Pannekoek no This copy belonged to J. Van Sandick handwritten annotation. Les deux derniers vol. With 24 exquisite etchings by Alois Kolb and four full-page magnificent etchings with tissue guards, each one signed in pencil at bottom right by Kolb. Barnabooth, son journal intime. Gebrocheerd, in de originele uitgeverskaft, kaft hevig gevlekt.
Toulouse, chez madame Richard, Tirage unique de 30 exx. Le Sphinx et autres contes bizarres. Illustrations de Roger Carle. Angomar et Priscilla, illustrations de Mariette Lydis. On y joint une aquarelle originale de deux femmes x mm , signature non lisible. Paris, Librairie de France, Stuyvaert 10 compositions h.
Ex-libris de Gabriel Opdebeek. Avec des vignettes en couleurs de Chas Laborde. Graphic artist raised in Leipzig, best known for his illustrations of Kafak, he was inspired by the early masters of German Expressionism Grosz, Dix He was also a sculptor. Guyot Paris, Marcel Seheur, Illustrated with 4 etchings by Nicholas Parry. Printed by hand on hale paper at the Tern Press. Fables de La Fontaine. Croquis et lettres de voyage de Berthold-Mahn.
Anvers, Librairie des Arts, Librairie des Arts, Fleuret, illustration de A. Un des ex. Introduction by Randolph Hughes. Illustrated by 11 copper engravings by John Buckland-Wright. Original red and yellow buckram, women in gilt and man in red on upper cover, spine lettered in gilt, top edges gilt, others edges untrimmed very slight fading to spine.
Illustrations de Kwasson Tokyo, T. Au nombre de 14, elles couvrent chacune 2 ff. Les beffrois au soleil. Odes en son honneur. Avec une suite en sanguine des 48 aquarelles originales de J. Paris, Bernard Grasset, Ingelijst in houten lijst uit de tijd. Op de keerzijde staat: Leunende man - Aquarel 43,3 x 27,8 cm , Opgekleefd op karton, gemonteerd in passe-partout.
Litho in ovale vorm. Litho 23,8 x 14,4 cm samen: In behaalde hij de Prijs van Rome voor architectuur. Hotel de Phare in Oostende. Bigg, 50 x 58 cm, printed in colours by P. Smith, after a painting by W. Bigg, 48 x 58 cm, printed in colours. The birds are cut out and pasted down. Loose, formerly bound, edges gilt. By or after James Forbes , prolific writer and artist. Humorous large engraving depicting 54 playing-cards with standing male and female figures, each above a 4-line verse. Muller b; Eigen Haard, , p. In this state, the captions below each card are different from the first state.
Margins very skillfully repaired. Engraving after Perino del Vaga, c. Venus lectures Cupid while two other putti surround Venus. Volgens een oude nota op de keerzijde uit de collectie van Prins Karel Raversijde. Martius, Junius and November Three old handcol. Affiche in het Engels voor de fameuze tentoonstelling over de Vlaamse primitieven. Ontworpen door Hector Van Hulle, met kunstenaars in medaillons, stadswapens en voorstellingen van de gebouwen waar de tentoonstelling plaats vond in het hof van Gruuthuse en in de Kunst Academie.
Marginaal scheurtje, wat beduimeld. Ingelijst in vergulde lijst. Ontworpen ter gelegenheid van het zevende eeuwfeest in augustus Vooraan een kerstkribbe met daarachter Maria en Jozef. Achterzijde beschilderd en ingelijst in kader uit de tijd? Oorspronkelijke lijst in bladgoud Ch. Olie op doek, 60 x 50 cm, gesigneerd en gedateerd links onder, in een witte houten lijst.
In deed hij inspiratie op in Spanje. Affiche gedrukt in lithografie 85 x 64 cm gedrukt in twee kleuren zwart en sepia met voorstelling van de Steenstraat met veel animatie en in de achtergrond het Belfort. In een houten lijst. Grote chromolitho 56 x 37 cm ontworpen door Flori Van Acker; met tekst in gotisch lettertype en in rood en zwart. Tentoonstelling die plaatsvond van juni tot september Sporen van plooien, kleine marginale scheurtjes zonder verlies, kleine vlekjes in de rand. In passe-partout, ingelijst achter glas. Volgens nota op de keerzijde ca.
Ingelijst in kader met goudrandje. Getekend en genummerd rechts onder nr. Olieverf op paneel, 40 x 50 cm, gesigneerd en gedateerd links onder. In een vergulde lijst. Hij werd ereburger van Oudenburg. Dali, signed in pencil lower right. Tekening 3 x 5 cm met rechts onder monogram en datum Linnen passe-partout, houten lijst. Oorspronkelijke zwart houten lijst. Meeste eigenhandig getekend door de kunstenaar. Vele stukken zijn uniek en niet aanwezig in het prentenkabinet van Brugge. Persoonlijke verzameling van de kunstenaar. Potloodtekening 28 x 19 cm , getekend links onder.
Werk in Prentenkabinet Brussel en verschillende musea. Van den Oever Drie originele aquarellen, ca. De novelle, over Antwerpen in de Geuzentijd, waarvoor dit werk werd gemaakt, verscheen in Kader met gouden randje. Alle gesigneerd en gedateerd In een originele bewaardoos, met het monogram van Julien De Jaegher.
Verschillende met kleur afgewerkt. Volgens oude nota velen niet in Prentenkabinet van de Stad Brugge. Aquarel, 38 x 27 cm, gesigneerd links onder, gesculpteerde lijst, achter glas. Gedrukt op handgeschept papier. Alle achter glas met een zwart randje. Alle schetsen gesigneerd door de kunstenaar. Los bijgevoegd is een orig. Het linnen is wat vervuild. Marked in blue pencil: We add an old print, no margins, with some tears in the margins. Giele was trained as a graphic artist and printer in Louvain. Giele had an affinity for church interiors and these are among his best productions. Bijgevoegd 9 houtskooltekeningen, verschillende formaten, niet gesigneerd.
Plus een aquarel, een schets van een brug en nog een pasteltekening. Allen getekend en gedateerd en Ingelijst in 4 kaders. In een houten lijst, achter glas kunsthandel E. Ingelijst in kader uit de periode. Onder passe-partout, houten lijst, achter glas bij galerie Villiers A. Ornamental border, tear without loss in the margin, 28 x 19,5 cm, mounted and framed behind glass. Ivanov Pavel Petrovich - St. Petersburg - Brussels. For several years he worked as a trainer of racehorses.
In s - early s Mak lived in Tehran and studied technique of Persian miniature. In late s Mak was introduced to Reza Shah Pahlavi, who conferred him title of his court painter. Ingelijst in oud kader. Vroeg werk impressionistische toets. Mooie lijst in oud goud. Getekend in linker onderhoek en gedateerd Michiels, Brugge BBL 15 maart - 7 april Ingelijst in houten lijstje onder passe-partout, achter glas.
Metalen lijst uit de tijd. Ingelijst in metalen lijst uit de tijd. Craquelures in de vissersfiguur, wat slordig gerestaureerd. Ingelijst in zware oorspronkelijke lijst. Gesigneerd en gedateerd in potlood rechtsonder. In passe-partout, in houten Schleiperlijst, achter glas. Origineel lijstje uit de tijd. Son style est postimpressionniste.
Rouir tome II, p. Rops au verso que la peinture provient directement de la succession de Philippe Rops. Mooie lijst uit de tijd. Vergulde lijst uit de periode. Ingelijst in zilverkleurig kadertje. Links een groot mes, bovenaan de maan, rechts een silhouet en onderaan een fabriek in de vorm van een accordeon. Met de kleuren blauw, roze en paars. Mooie zilverkleurige lijst Van Thienen, Brussel.
Dit blad papier werd in 4 gevouwen. Zaterdag 11 maart — Met blanco bladeren tussen de maanden van de kalender. Vol kalfslederen band uit de tijd, supra-libros in goudopdruk met wapens van de kasselrij Kortrijk, rug met ribben en goudstempeling, sluitlinten, gespikkelde sneden. Louys Collage in Ghendt heesscher by Requeste vanden 3. October , ter eender zyde. In-plano 29 x 39 cm , 1 blad, met een grote houtsnede die de prijzen van de loterij voorstelt, erboven vier wapenschilden, van de Sebastiaansgilde, de koning, de stad en een ander wapen. De loterij werd ingericht om de herstelling van het lokaal en de kapel van de Sint-Sebastiaansgilde te financieren.
De onderste helft met tekst van het blad ontbreekt. Vander Haeghen, Messager des sciences et des arts, , p. Vermeld als aanvulling op de loterijbrieven beschreven door Muller in De Nederlandsche Geschiedenis in platen. Beschrijving van de zeil-vischsloep zooals die te Oostende, te Blankenberge en op de Panne in gebruik is. Tekst gedrukt in dubbel kader. Vol perkament uit de tijd, platten met goudgestempelde lijnenkaders en centraal wapenschild supra libros van het Brugse Vrije, gladde rug, sporen van sluitlinten. De Jonghe, Armorial belge du Bibliophile, t. Brugge, Pieter Vande Capelle, Geschreven door Reynier Calis Klerck.
Behoorlijke staat met sporen van plooien, herstelde marginale scheurtjes. Genaaid, blauw papieren kaftje. De vijand probeert met geheime samenzweringen steden te hinderen en te invaderen. Conspirateurs jegens de overheid en de rust en welvaart van de stad Brugge moeten overgeleverd worden aan de Raad. Ordonnantien ghestatueert bij Bailliu, Burchmeesters ende Scepenen slans vanden Vrijen naer de Welcke den Lantsman schuldich es hem te reguleren up stick vanden Graene ende Fouraige.
Eveneens gedrukt te Brugge bij Jan van Geniwe. Ordonnantie voor landbouwers over graan en voeders. Gedrukt in gotische letters samen: Van dit document is het originele handschrift bewaard, gesigneerd F. Gedrukt te Gent bij de wed. Goede luiden moeten beschermd worden tegen de afgrijselijke en onmenselijke tirannie der Spanjaarden die vrouwen en dochters verkrachten en het land tot slavernij brengen. Rechtvaardiging van de Opstand tegen Spaanse overheersing. Praktische maatregelen zoals speciale paspoorten komen aan bod.
Ook de stad Kortrijk wordt vermeld. Tekst in het Latijn. Gedrukt voor zijn jarig jubileum bij J. Beernaerts in Brugge, met een groot bisschopswapen in kopergravure. Brugge, Franciscus Heseanus, Handboekje van het Genootschap van het allerheiligste en onbevlekt Hert van Maria, tot bekeering der zondaers ingesteld in de parochiale kerk van den Heiligen Nicolaus, te Dixmude. V van Dadizele, Sinte Lutgardis en Idesbald samen: De Moor en zoon, Lucas te vieren in de St. Donaaskathedraal, in - - , alle met ornamentele boord.
Brugge, Bogaert, Verhaeghe, Los bijgevoegd is een grote uitv. Gebonden in half chagrin, rug versierd met goud, met lederverlies onderaan de rug, gemarmerde sneden. Half linnen banden met lederen etiketten. Met opdracht auteur aan prof. De Cock en R. I omvat eveneens 33 portretten in houtsnede door Kraft. II met dubbel adres: Gebonden in volle perkamentbanden uit de tijd met nerven.
Scharnieren soms gebroken en deel 3 met vernieuwde rug. Haute-Normandie, plages du Nord. Ostende, reine des plages. Brochure touristique de Van Cortenbergh, Bruxelles ensemble: Gent, de Goesin, Genummerde editie, beperkte oplage van exx. Gebonden in half chagrin, titels verguld op de rug.
Coutume du Bourg de Bruges 3 vol. Document opgemaakt voor Cornelis Rubens Brugge? Zeldzaam stuk in goede staat, met oude vouwen. Recueil des anciennes coutumes de la Belgique. Quartier de Furnes Bruxelles, J. Onafgesneden, gebrocheerd in uitgeverskaften, fris binnenin, maar de kaften zijn vervuild en deels gescheurd aan de ruggen.
Potter van der Loo, in de XVe eeuw. Genaaid, rug van het het eerste vol. Rerum Flandricarum, tomi X. Map met tekeningen in litho e. Map met drukwerk i. Vooral prijslijsten in manuscript. Map documentatie en drie boeken o. Halfleder uit de tijd, gladde rug met goudstempeling. Buiten de gewone uitgave werden exx. Green van Maidstone, dit is ex. De tekst genaaid, de platen los, samen in een etui. Zwarte halflederen band, rug met goudopdruk uit de periode, wat geschaafd. In-folio, 47 pp, titel in rood en zwart, met wapen in houtsnede.
Versleten kalfslederen band uit de tijd, geschaafd, met verlies van leder aan de rug, met wapen in supra-libros op beide platten op voorplat sterk gewreven. Voorin is een gedrukte brief ingekleefd, uitgaande van de Raad van Vlaanderen. Sint-Godelieveabdij Gistel Gistel, Steenrode linnen band en stofwikkel. Ruim jaar gemeentelijk onderwijs in Ruddervoorde. De oplage bestaat uit Arabische gen. CLX, op geschept papier van J. Green Maidstone met Goethals Rotary watermerk. Gedichten, diplomatisch uitgegeven naar twee handschriften ter Koninklijke Bibliotheek te Brussel berustende Gent, Annoot-Braeckman, Theophilus, gedicht der XIV.
Gebonden in half marokijn uit de tijd, versierd met goud. Alle opgekleefd op blauw papier, losbladig in een groene papieren kaft. Buiten de gewone, werden 52 ex. Gebonden in half leder, titel verguld op de rug, kop verguld. In een groene bewaardoos. Drukkersmerk in houtsnede op de titel.
Met een uitgebreid verslag van De geschiedenis loopt tot Gebonden in half leder, versierd met goud, gewreven, gemarmerde sneden en schutbladen. Het merkwaardig beleg van Ostende. De evolutie van de Oostende vissershaven, een duizendjarige reuzenstrijd. Oude Oostende straten en gebouwen. Marginaal scheurtje zonder verlies in p. Gebonden in half leder, versierd met goud, voorste scharnier gebroken, titelvignet in zwart marokijn op de rug, gemarmerde sneden en schutbladen.
Nombreuses illustrations cartes, plans etc. Talrijke illustraties kaarten, stadsplannen enz. Enkele marginale roestvlekjes, enkele platen versterkt in plooien. Blauw half lederen banden, gladde ruggen, wat verbleekt. Genaaid in de tijd, zonder kaftje. Histoire de la ville de Nieuport Bruges, J. Gebonden in half leder uit de tijd. Y aura-t-il une Belgique? Met het stadswapen in kopergrav. Gebonden in vol kalfsleder, met stadswapen Kortrijk in supra libros op beide platten, rug beschadigd met gedeeltelijk verlies van leder.
De uithangteekens, in verband met Geschiedenis en Volksleven beschouwd Amsterdam, gebroeders Kraay, Genaaid, de ruggen slordig geplakt. In een ornamentele kader. Triumph gezang tot lof van den Nederlandtschen Leeuw in Belgica Ontbreekt laatste deel dat pas in uitkwam , enkele roestvlekjes. Gebonden in half chagrin, titel verguld op de rug. Belangrijke berijmde wereldkroniek omstreeks door van Maerlant samengesteld. Heruitgave bewerkt door P. Van Veltem maar bezorgd door De Vries en Verwijs. Luxueuze banden in rood chagrin, met goud op de platten, op de ruggen, op de kopsnedes en op de randen van de binnenplatten, heel licht gewreven.
Beschadigd bandje in half leder, voorste scharnier gebroken. Gebonden in vol blauw chagrin, titel verguld, met behoud van uitgeverskaft. Au pays des dunes, excursions pittoresques aux Anciennes Granges Monumentales de la Flandre Maritime. Abbaye des Dunes et de Ter Doest. Bruxelles et Paris, Van Oest, Ostende, Imprimerie Centrale, Gesigneerd door de auteur Julien Van Remoortere. Costumen ende keuren der stede van Oostende.
Ghendt, Maximilaen Graet, Titelvignet met stadswapen in kopergravure. Frontispice en plaat b. Samengebonden met Nederlandstalige versie, eveneens met front. Op het laatste blad staan de familiegebeurtenissen huwelijk, geboortes en overlijdens. De pachtinkomsten beslaan de periode -. Chansons populaires de France: Paris, Gabriel de Gonet, s. Plano blad 79 x 56 cm met talrijke ornamenten versierd.
Geplooid en goed bewaard. Gebonden in halflinnen band. Genummerd 87 op ? La date du front. De familie woonde in de streek van Roeselare, het boek werd aangekocht bij drukkerij Stock-Werbrouck. Achterin zijn nog blanco bladen.