The painter Yang Liu, for example, has incorporated smooth versions of the traditional Greek Key also called Sona drawing, Sand drawing , and Kolam in many of her paintings. In Modern Greece, a black, white, and red meander is the symbol of the far-right political party Golden Dawn. Roman mosaic , Archaeological Museum of Milan. Roman mosaic from Chedworth Roman Villa , England.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Meander disambiguation. The meander mosaic of the tepidarium. Explorations with sona drawings," Leonardo , April , Vol. Retrieved from " https: Greek culture Ornaments Visual motifs. Seven works of Sophocles have survived, the most acclaimed of which are the three Theban plays , which center around the story of Oedipus and his offspring. Although the plays are often called a "trilogy," they were actually written many years apart.
Antigone , the last of the three plays sequentially, was actually first to be written, having been composed in BC, towards the beginning of Sophocles's career. There are nineteen surviving plays attributed to Euripides. The most well-known of these plays are Medea , Hippolytus , and Bacchae.
Architectural tradition and design has the ability to link disparate cultures .. the simultaneous sacrifice of bulls (Diodorus Siculus History ). J. J. Coulton, Ancient Greek Architects at Work: Problems of Structure and Design ( Ithaca. Read and learn for free about the following article: Greek architectural orders. Coulton, J. J. Ancient Greek Architects at Work: Problems of Structure and Design . “Designing the Roman Corinthian Order,” Journal of Roman Archaeology 2.
Like tragedy, comedy arose from a ritual in honor of Dionysus , but in this case the plays were full of frank obscenity, abuse, and insult. At Athens , the comedies became an official part of the festival celebration in BC, and prizes were offered for the best productions. As with the tragedians, few works still remain of the great comedic writers. The only complete surviving works of classical comedy are eleven plays written by the playwright Aristophanes. He poked fun at everyone and every institution.
In The Birds , he ridicules Athenian democracy. In The Clouds , he attacks the philosopher Socrates. In Lysistrata , he denounces war. When it was performed for the first time at the Lenaia Festival in BC, just one year after the death of Euripides, the Athenians awarded it first prize. A commercially successful modern musical adaptation of it was performed on Broadway in The third dramatic genre was the satyr play. Although the genre was popular, only one complete example of a satyr play has survived: Two notable historians who lived during the Classical Era were Herodotus of Halicarnassus and Thucydides.
Herodotus is commonly called "The Father of History. Thucydides's book History of the Peloponnesian War greatly influenced later writers and historians, including the author of the book of Acts of the Apostles and the Byzantine Era historian Procopius of Caesarea. Xenophon also wrote three works in praise of the philosopher Socrates: Although both Xenophon and Plato knew Socrates, their accounts are very different. Many comparisons have been made between the account of the military historian and the account of the poet-philosopher.
Many important and influential philosophers lived during the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Among the earliest Greek philosophers were the three so-called " Milesian philosophers ": Thales of Miletus , Anaximander , and Anaximenes. Very little is known for certain about the life of the philosopher Pythagoras of Samos and no writings by him have survived to the present day,  but an impressive corpus of poetic writings written by his pupil Empedocles of Acragas has survived, making Empedocles one of the most widely attested Pre-Socratic philosophers.
Of all the classical philosophers, however, Socrates , Plato , and Aristotle are generally considered the most important and influential. Socrates did not write any books himself and modern scholars debate whether or not Plato's portrayal of him is accurate. Some scholars contend that many of his ideas, or at least a vague approximation of them, are expressed in Plato's early socratic dialogues.
Plato expressed his ideas through dialogues, that is, written works purporting to describe conversations between different individuals. Some of the best-known of these include: The Apology of Socrates , a purported record of the speech Socrates gave at his trial;  Phaedo , a description of the last conversation between Socrates and his disciples before his execution;  The Symposium , a dialogue over the nature of love ;  and The Republic , widely regarded as Plato's most important work,   a long dialogue describing the ideal government.
Aristotle of Stagira is widely considered to be one of the most important and influential philosophical thinkers of all time. Aristotle was a student at Plato's Academy , and like his teacher, he wrote dialogues, or conversations. However, none of these exist today. The body of writings that has come down to the present probably represents lectures that he delivered at his own school in Athens, the Lyceum. He explored matters other than those that are today considered philosophical; the extant treatises cover logic, the physical and biological sciences, ethics, politics, and constitutional government.
Athens lost its preeminent status as the leader of Greek culture, and it was replaced temporarily by Alexandria , Egypt.
The city of Alexandria in northern Egypt became, from the 3rd century BC, the outstanding center of Greek culture. It also soon attracted a large Jewish population, making it the largest center for Jewish scholarship in the ancient world. In addition, it later became a major focal point for the development of Christian thought. The Musaeum , or Shrine to the Muses, which included the library and school, was founded by Ptolemy I. The institution was from the beginning intended as a great international school and library. It was intended to serve as a repository for every work of classical Greek literature that could be found.
The genre of bucolic poetry was first developed by the poet Theocritus. The Alexandrian poet Apollonius of Rhodes is best known for his epic poem the Argonautica , which narrates the adventures of Jason and his shipmates the Argonauts on their quest to retrieve the Golden Fleece from the land of Colchis. The most notable writer of New Comedy was the Athenian playwright Menander. None of Menander's plays have survived to the present day in their complete form, but one play, The Bad-Tempered Man , has survived to the present day in a near-complete form.
Large portions of another play entitled The Girl from Samos have also survived. The historian Timaeus was born in Sicily but spent most of his life in Athens. In 38 books it covered the history of Sicily and Italy to the year BC, which is where Polybius begins his work. Timaeus also wrote the Olympionikai , a valuable chronological study of the Olympic Games. Eratosthenes of Alexandria c. He is credited with being the first person to measure the Earth's circumference. Much that was written by the mathematicians Euclid and Archimedes has been preserved.
Euclid is known for his Elements , much of which was drawn from his predecessor Eudoxus of Cnidus. The Elements is a treatise on geometry, and it has exerted a continuing influence on mathematics.
Built between and B. From about BC, Greek statues began increasingly to depict real people, as opposed to vague interpretations of myth or entirely fictional votive statues , although the style in which they were represented had not yet developed into a realistic form of portraiture. The clear light and sharp shadows give a precision to the details of landscape, pale rocky outcrops and seashore. The Moschophoros or calf-bearer, c. The new Schaff-Herzog encyclopedia of religious knowledge:
From Archimedes several treatises have come down to the present. A manuscript of his works is currently being studied. Very little has survived of prose fiction from the Hellenistic Era. The Milesiaka itself has not survived to the present day in its complete form, but various references to it have survived. The book established a whole new genre of so-called " Milesian tales ," of which The Golden Ass by the later Roman writer Apuleius is a prime example.
The ancient Greek novels Chaereas and Callirhoe  by Chariton and Metiochus and Parthenope   were probably both written during the late first century BC or early first century AD, during the latter part of the Hellenistic Era. The discovery of several fragments of Lollianos's Phoenician Tale reveal the existence of a genre of ancient Greek picaresque novel.
While the transition from city-state to empire affected philosophy a great deal, shifting the emphasis from political theory to personal ethics, Greek letters continued to flourish both under the Successors especially the Ptolemies and under Roman rule. Romans of literary or rhetorical inclination looked to Greek models, and Greek literature of all types continued to be read and produced both by native speakers of Greek and later by Roman authors as well. A notable characteristic of this period was the expansion of literary criticism as a genre, particularly as exemplified by Demetrius, Pseudo-Longinus and Dionysius of Halicarnassus.
The New Testament , written by various authors in varying qualities of Koine Greek also hails from this period,  : The poet Quintus of Smyrna , who probably lived during the late fourth century AD,   wrote Posthomerica , an epic poem narrating the story of the fall of Troy, beginning where The Iliad left off. The poet Nonnus of Panopolis wrote The Dionysiaca , the longest surviving epic poem from antiquity.
He also wrote a poetic paraphrase of The Gospel of John. The historian Polybius was born about BC. He was brought to Rome as a hostage in In Rome he became a friend of the general Scipio Aemilianus. He probably accompanied the general to Spain and North Africa in the wars against Carthage. He was with Scipio at the destruction of Carthage in He wrote a universal history , Bibliotheca Historica , in 40 books. Of these, the first five and the 11th through the 20th remain. The first two parts covered history through the early Hellenistic era.
The third part takes the story to the beginning of Caesar's wars in Gaul, now France. His history of Rome from its origins to the First Punic War to BC is written from a Roman point of view, but it is carefully researched. Arrian served in the Roman army. His book therefore concentrates heavily on the military aspects of Alexander's life.
Arrian also wrote a philosophical treatise, the Diatribai , based on the teachings of his mentor Epictetus. Best known of the late Greek historians to modern readers is Plutarch of Chaeronea , who died about AD His Parallel Lives of great Greek and Roman leaders has been read by every generation since the work was first published. His other surviving work is the Moralia , a collection of essays on ethical, religious, political, physical, and literary topics.
During later times, so-called " commonplace books ," usually describing historical anecdotes, became quite popular. The physician Galen lived during the 2nd century AD. He was a careful student of anatomy, and his works exerted a powerful influence on medicine for the next 1, years. Strabo , who died about AD 23, was a geographer and historian.
His Historical Sketches in 47 volumes has nearly all been lost. His Geographical Sketches remain as the only existing ancient book covering the whole range of people and countries known to the Greeks and Romans through the time of Augustus. The book takes the form of a tour of Greece, starting in Athens and ending in Naupactus. The scientist of the Roman period who had the greatest influence on later generations was undoubtedly the astronomer Ptolemy.
He lived during the 2nd century AD,  though little is known of his life. His masterpiece, originally entitled The Mathematical Collection , has come to the present under the title Almagest , as it was translated by Arab astronomers with that title.
His teachings were collected by his pupil Arrian in the Discourses and the Encheiridion Manual of Study. Diogenes Laertius , who lived in the third century AD, wrote Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers , a voluminous collection of biographies of nearly every Greek philosopher who ever lived. Unfortunately, Diogenes Laertius often fails to cite his sources and many modern historians consider his testimony unreliable. His biography of Epicurus , for instance, is of particularly high quality and contains three lengthy letters attributed to Epicurus himself, at least two of which are generally agreed to be authentic.
Another major philosopher of his period was Plotinus. He transformed Plato's philosophy into a school called Neoplatonism. After the rise of Christianity, many of the most important philosophers were Christians. The second-century Christian apologist Justin Martyr , who wrote exclusively in Greek, made extensive use of ideas from Greek philosophy, especially Platonism. The Roman Period was the time when the majority of extant works of Greek prose fiction were composed.
Daphnis and Chloe , by far the most famous of the five surviving ancient Greek romance novels, is a nostalgic tale of two young lovers growing up in an idealized pastoral environment on the Greek island of Lesbos. The Wonders Beyond Thule has not survived in its complete form, but a very lengthy summary of it written by Photios I of Constantinople has survived. Poses also became more naturalistic, notably during the beginning of the period.
This is embodied in works such as the Kritios Boy BC , sculpted with the earliest known use of contrapposto 'counterpose' , and the Charioteer of Delphi BC , which demonstrates a transition to more naturalistic sculpture. From about BC, Greek statues began increasingly to depict real people, as opposed to vague interpretations of myth or entirely fictional votive statues , although the style in which they were represented had not yet developed into a realistic form of portraiture.
The statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton , set up in Athens mark the overthrow of the aristocratic tyranny , and have been said to be the first public monuments to show actual individuals. The Classical Period also saw an increase in the use of statues and sculptures as decorations of buildings. The characteristic temples of the Classical era, such as the Parthenon in Athens, and the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, used relief sculpture for decorative friezes , and sculpture in the round to fill the triangular fields of the pediments.
The difficult aesthetic and technical challenge stimulated much in the way of sculptural innovation. Most of these works survive only in fragments, for example the Parthenon Marbles , roughly half of which are in the British Museum. Funeral statuary evolved during this period from the rigid and impersonal kouros of the Archaic period to the highly personal family groups of the Classical period.
These monuments are commonly found in the suburbs of Athens, which in ancient times were cemeteries on the outskirts of the city. Although some of them depict "ideal" types—the mourning mother, the dutiful son—they increasingly depicted real people, typically showing the departed taking his dignified leave from his family. This is a notable increase in the level of emotion relative to the Archaic and Geometrical eras. Another notable change is the burgeoning of artistic credit in sculpture. The entirety of information known about sculpture in the Archaic and Geometrical periods are centered upon the works themselves, and seldom, if ever, on the sculptors.
Examples include Phidias , known to have overseen the design and building of the Parthenon , and Praxiteles , whose nude female sculptures were the first to be considered artistically respectable. Praxiteles' Aphrodite of Knidos , which survives in copies, was often referenced to and praised by Pliny the Elder. Lysistratus is said to have been the first to use plaster molds taken from living people to produce lost-wax portraits, and to have also developed a technique of casting from existing statues. He came from a family of sculptors and his brother, Lysippos of Sicyon , produced fifteen hundred statues in his career.
The Statue of Zeus at Olympia and the Statue of Athena Parthenos both chryselephantine and executed by Phidias or under his direction, and considered to be the greatest of the Classical Sculptures , are lost, although smaller copies in other materials and good descriptions of both still exist. Their size and magnificence prompted rivals to seize them in the Byzantine period, and both were removed to Constantinople , where they were later destroyed. Acropolis Museum , Athens. Terracotta vase in the shape of Dionysus ' head, ca. The transition from the Classical to the Hellenistic or Hellenic Hellenic is not the same era as the Hellenistic period occurred during the 4th century BC.
Greek art became increasingly diverse, influenced by the cultures of the peoples drawn into the Greek orbit, by the conquests of Alexander the Great to BC. In the view of some art historians, this is described as a decline in quality and originality; however, individuals of the time may not have shared this outlook. Many sculptures previously considered classical masterpieces are now known to be of the Hellenistic age. The technical ability of the Hellenistic sculptors are clearly in evidence in such major works as the Winged Victory of Samothrace , and the Pergamon Altar.
New centres of Greek culture, particularly in sculpture, developed in Alexandria , Antioch , Pergamum , and other cities.
By the 2nd century BC, the rising power of Rome had also absorbed much of the Greek tradition—and an increasing proportion of its products as well. During this period, sculpture again experienced a shift towards increasing naturalism. Common people, women, children, animals, and domestic scenes became acceptable subjects for sculpture, which was commissioned by wealthy families for the adornment of their homes and gardens.
Realistic figures of men and women of all ages were produced, and sculptors no longer felt obliged to depict people as ideals of beauty or physical perfection. At the same time, new Hellenistic cities springing up in Egypt , Syria , and Anatolia required statues depicting the gods and heroes of Greece for their temples and public places. This made sculpture, like pottery, an industry, with the consequent standardisation and some lowering of quality.
For these reasons, quite a few more Hellenistic statues survive to the present than those of the Classical period. Alongside the natural shift towards naturalism, there was a shift in expression of the sculptures as well. Sculptures began expressing more power and energy during this time period. An easy way to see the shift in expressions during the Hellenistic period would be to compare it to the sculptures of the Classical period.
The classical period had sculptures such as the Charioteer of Delphi expressing humility. The sculptures of the Hellenistic period however saw greater expressions of power and energy as demonstrated in the Jockey of Artemision. All these statues depict Classical themes, but their treatment is far more sensuous and emotional than the austere taste of the Classical period would have allowed or its technical skills permitted.
Hellenistic sculpture was also marked by an increase in scale, which culminated in the Colossus of Rhodes late 3rd century , thought to have been roughly the same size as the Statue of Liberty. The combined effect of earthquakes and looting have destroyed this as well as any other very large works of this period that might have existed. Following the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greek culture spread as far as India, as revealed by the excavations of Ai-Khanoum in eastern Afghanistan, and the civilization of the Greco-Bactrians and the Indo-Greeks.
Greco-Buddhist art represented a syncretism between Greek art and the visual expression of Buddhism. Discoveries made since the end of the 19th century surrounding the now submerged ancient Egyptian city of Heracleum include a 4th-century BC depiction of Isis.
The depiction is unusually sensual for depictions of the Egyptian goddess, as well as being uncharacteristically detailed and feminine, marking a combination of Egyptian and Hellenistic forms around the time of Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt.
In Goa , India, were found Buddha statues in Greek styles. These are attributed to Greek converts to Buddhism, many of whom are known to have settled in Goa during Hellenistic times. Statue of a prince or dynast without crown, traditionally thought to be a Seleucid prince, maybe Attalus II of Pergamon.
Bronze, Greek artwork of the Hellenistic era , 3rd-2nd centuries BC. Sepulchral monument of a dying Adonis , polychrome terracotta , Etruscan art from Tuscana , BC. Ancient Greek terracotta head of a young man, found in Tarent , ca. Female head partially imitating a vase lekythos , BC. Bronze portrait of an unknown sitter, with inlaid eyes, Hellenistic period, 1st century BC, found in Lake Palestra of the Island of Delos.