The Refractive Thinker®: Vol V: Strategy in Innovation: Ch 1: Innovation Out of Turbulence

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Click here Do you believe that this item violates a copyright? Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. View or edit your browsing history. Get to Know Us. The Dutch physician Franciscus Sylvius is often credited with the invention of gin in the mid 17th century, [] [] although the existence of genever is confirmed in Massinger's play The Duke of Milan , when Dr.

Sylvius would have been but nine years of age. It is further claimed that British soldiers who provided support in Antwerp against the Spanish in , during the Eighty Years' War , were already drinking genever jenever for its calming effects before battle, from which the term Dutch Courage is believed to have originated. A stroopwafel also known as syrup waffle , treacle waffle or caramel waffle is a waffle made from two thin layers of baked batter with a caramel-like syrup filling the middle.

They were first made in Gouda in the s. The traditional way to eat the stroopwafel is to place it atop of a drinking vessel with a hot beverage coffee, tea or chocolate inside that fits the diameter of the waffle. The heat from the rising steam warms the waffle and slightly softens the inside and makes the waffle soft on one side while still crispy on the other. In , Dutch chemist Coenraad Van Houten introduced alkaline salts to chocolate , which reduced its bitterness.

In the s, Casparus van Houten, Sr. This innovation introduced the modern era of chocolate. Van Houten developed the first cocoa powder producing machine in the Netherlands. This created a "cake" that could be pulverized into cocoa powder , which was to become the basis of all chocolate products. This powder, much like the instant cocoa powder used today, was easier to stir into milk and water.

As a result, another very important discovery was made: By using cocoa powder and low amounts of cocoa butter , it was then possible to manufacture chocolate bar. The term " chocolate " then came to mean solid chocolate , rather than hot chocolate. Dutch-processed chocolate or Dutched chocolate is chocolate that has been treated with an alkalizing agent to modify its color and give it a milder taste compared to "natural cocoa" extracted with the Broma process. It forms the basis for much of modern chocolate, and is used in ice cream , hot cocoa , and baking. The Dutch process was developed in the early 19th century by Dutch chocolate maker Coenraad Johannes van Houten , whose father Casparus is responsible for the development of the method of removing fat from cacao beans by hydraulic press around , forming the basis for cocoa powder.

In , Hugo Grotius , the Dutch jurist who is generally known as the father of modern international law , published his book Mare Liberum The Free Sea , which first formulated the notion of freedom of the seas. He developed this idea into a legal principle. His work sparked a debate in the seventeenth century over whether states could exclude the vessels of other states from certain waters. Grotius won this debate, as freedom of the seas became a universally recognized legal principle, associated with concepts such as communication, trade and peace.

Grotius's notion of the freedom of the seas would persist until the mid-twentieth century, and it continues to be applied even to this day for much of the high seas , though the application of the concept and the scope of its reach is changing. The publication of De jure belli ac pacis On the Laws of War and Peace by Hugo Grotius in had marked the emergence of international law as an 'autonomous legal science'. Grotius developed pivotal treatises on freedom of the seas, the law of spoils, the laws of war and peace and he created an autonomous place for international law as its own discipline.

Grotius seems to have been the first who attempted to give the world anything like a regular system of natural jurisprudence, and his treatise, 'On the Laws of War and Peace, ' with all its imperfections, is perhaps at this day the most complete work on this subject. The Grotian conception of international society became the most distinctive characteristic of the internationalist or rationalist tradition in international relations.

This is why it is also called the Grotian tradition. According to it international politics takes place within international society in which states are bound not only by rules of prudence or expediency but also of morality and law. Grotius was arguably not the first to formulate such a doctrine. However, he was first to clearly define the idea of one society of states, governed not by force or warfare but by laws and mutual agreement to enforce those laws. As many international law scholars noted, the spirit of the Peace of Westphalia was preceded with the thoughts and ideas of Grotius.

By the end of the seventeenth century, support was growing for some limitation to the seaward extent of territorial waters. What emerged was the so-called "cannon shot rule", which acknowledged the idea that property rights could be acquired by physical occupation and in practice to the effective range of shore-based cannon: The rule was long associated with Cornelis van Bijnkershoek , a Dutch jurist who, especially in his De Dominio Maris Dissertatio , advocated a middle ground between the extremes of Mare Liberum and John Selden 's Mare Clausum , accepting both the freedom of states to navigate and exploit the resources of the high seas and a right of coastal states to assert wide-ranging rights in a limited marine territory.

The court was established in as one of the acts of the first Hague Peace Conference , which makes it the oldest global institution for international dispute resolution. The most concrete achievement of the Conference was the establishment of the PCA as the first institutionalized global mechanism for the settlement of disputes between states.

The PCA encourages the resolution of disputes that involve states, state entities, intergovernmental organizations , and private parties by assisting in the establishment of arbitration tribunals and facilitating their work. The court offers a wide range of services for the resolution of international disputes which the parties concerned have expressly agreed to submit for resolution under its auspices. The International Opium Convention , sometimes referred to as the Hague Convention of , signed on 23 January at The Hague , was the first international drug control treaty and is the core of the international drug control system.

The adoption of the Convention was a turning point in multilateralism , based on the recognition of the transnational nature of the drug problem and the principle of shared responsibility. Denmark was the first state to recognize a legal relationship for same-sex couples, establishing "registered partnerships" very much like marriage in In , the Netherlands became the first nation in the world to grant same-sex marriages. The first laws enabling same-sex marriage in modern times were enacted during the first decade of the 21st century.

Polls in various countries show that there is rising support for legally recognizing same-sex marriage across race, ethnicity, age, religion, political affiliation, and socioeconomic status. The first mechanical clocks , employing the verge escapement mechanism with a foliot or balance wheel timekeeper, were invented in Europe at around the start of the 14th century, and became the standard timekeeping device until the pendulum clock was invented in The pendulum clock remained the most accurate timekeeper until the s, when quartz oscillators were invented, followed by atomic clocks after World War 2.

A pendulum clock uses a pendulum's arc to mark intervals of time. From their invention until about , the most accurate clocks were pendulum clocks. Pendulum clocks cannot operate on vehicles or ships at sea , because the accelerations disrupt the pendulum's motion, causing inaccuracies.

The pendulum clock was invented by Christian Huygens , based on the pendulum introduced by Galileo Galilei. Although Galileo studied the pendulum as early as , he never actually constructed a clock based on that design. Christiaan Huygens invented pendulum clock in and patented the following year. He contracted the construction of his clock designs to clockmaker Salomon Coster , who actually built the clock. The thermometer was not a single invention, however, but a development. However, each inventor and each thermometer was unique — there was no standard scale.

In Christiaan Huygens suggested using the melting and boiling points of water as standards. In , Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius created a temperature scale which was the reverse of the scale now known by the name " Celsius ": The invention of the mainspring in the early 15th century allowed portable clocks to be built, evolving into the first pocketwatches by the 17th century, but these were not very accurate until the balance spring was added to the balance wheel in the mid 17th century.

Some dispute remains as to whether British scientist Robert Hooke his was a straight spring or Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens was the actual inventor of the balance spring. Huygens was clearly the first to successfully implement a spiral balance spring in a portable timekeeper. This is significant because up to that point the pendulum was the most reliable.

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Like the invention of pendulum clock , Huygens' spiral hairspring balance spring system of portable timekeepers, helped lay the foundations for the modern watchmaking industry. The application of the spiral balance spring for watches ushered in a new era of accuracy for portable timekeepers, similar to that which the pendulum had introduced for clocks. From its invention in by Christiaan Huygens , the spiral hairspring balance spring system for portable timekeepers, still used in mechanical watchmaking industry today. Though Galileo is often said to be the inventor of the thermometer , what he produced were thermoscopes.

The difference between a thermoscope and a thermometer is that the latter has a scale. Before there was the thermometer , there was the earlier and closely related thermoscope , best described as a thermometer without a temperature scale. A thermoscope only showed the differences in temperatures , for example, it could show something was getting hotter.

However, the thermoscope did not measure all the data that a thermometer could, for example an exact temperature in degrees. What can be considered the first modern thermometer, the mercury thermometer with a standardized scale, was invented by German-Dutch scientist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit who had settled in Amsterdam in in He began constructing his own thermometers in , and it was in these that he used mercury for the first time.

In Christiaan Huygens suggested using the melting and boiling points of water as standards, and in Carlo Renaldini proposed using them as fixed points on a universal scale. In Isaac Newton proposed a scale of 12 degrees between the melting point of ice and body temperature. Finally in Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit produced a temperature scale which now slightly adjusted bears his name. He could do this because he manufactured thermometers , using mercury which has a high coefficient of expansion for the first time and the quality of his production could provide a finer scale and greater reproducibility, leading to its general adoption.

The Fahrenheit scale was the first widely used temperature scale. By the end of the 20th century, most countries used the Celsius scale rather than the Fahrenheit scale, though Canada retained it as a supplementary scale used alongside Celsius. Fahrenheit remains the official scale for Jamaica , the Cayman Islands , Belize , the Bahamas , Palau and the United States and associated territories. The Snellen chart is an eye chart used by eye care professionals and others to measure visual acuity.

Snellen charts are named after Dutch ophthalmologist Hermann Snellen who developed the chart in Vision scientists now use a variation of this chart, designed by Ian Bailey and Jan Lovie. Previous to the string galvanometer , scientists used a machine called the capillary electrometer to measure the heart's electrical activity, but this device was unable to produce results at a diagnostic level. Dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven developed the string galvanometer in the early 20th century, publishing the first registration of its use to record an electrocardiogram in a Festschrift book in The first human electrocardiogram was recorded in , however only in was a quantifiable result obtained from the string galvanometer.

In , Dutch astronomer Jan Schilt invented the Schilt photometer , a device that measures the light output of stars and, indirectly, their distances. In the 19th century it became clear that the heart generated electric currents. The first to systematically approach the heart from an electrical point-of-view was Augustus Waller , working in St Mary's Hospital in Paddington , London. In he saw little clinical application for his work. The breakthrough came when Einthoven, working in Leiden , used his more sensitive string galvanometer, than the capillary electrometer that Waller used.

Einthoven assigned the letters P, Q, R, S and T to the various deflections that it measured and described the electrocardiographic features of a number of cardiovascular disorders. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery. Einthoven's triangle is an imaginary formation of three limb leads in a triangle used in electrocardiography , formed by the two shoulders and the pubis. It is named after Willem Einthoven , who theorized its existence.

When German bombers attacked The Hague in while Willem Johan Kolff was there, he organised the first blood bank in continental Europe. It was located in the Zuidwal hospital in The Hague. Donated blood was also used for victims of the bombardment of Rotterdam , whither it was transported by civilian car. An artificial kidney is a machine and its related devices which clean blood for patients who have an acute or chronic failure of their kidneys. The first artificial kidney was developed by Dutchman Willem Johan Kolff. The procedure of cleaning the blood by this means is called dialysis , a type of renal replacement therapy that is used to provide an artificial replacement for lost kidney function due to renal failure.

It is a life support treatment and does not treat disease. On 12 December , Kolff implanted an artificial heart into a dog at Cleveland Clinic. The dog lived for 90 minutes. Kolff left Cleveland Clinic to start the Division of Artificial Organs at the University of Utah and pursue his work on the artificial heart. Under his supervision, a team of surgeons, chemists, physicists and bioengineers developed an artificial heart and made it ready for industrial production. To help manage his many endeavors, Dr. Kolff assigned project managers. Each project was named after its manager. Graduate student Robert Jarvik was the project manager for the artificial heart, which was subsequently renamed the Jarvik Based on lengthy animal trials, this first artificial heart was successfully implanted into the thorax of patient Barney Clark in December Clark survived days with the device.

The Dutch Republic has been considered by many political and military historians as the first modern global sea power. In the middle of the 17th century the Dutch navy was the most powerful navy in the world. The system of global trade, investment, and military power the Dutch built in the seventeenth century was the envy and the wonder of the world at the time, and many of its basic features were adopted by the British and the Americans in subsequent years. They had to help him with his modernization of Russia.

Cruys performed well in Russia and came be regarded as the architect of the Russian Navy. The triangular man-made island took its name after a number of canals and shipbuilding facilities that rendered its appearance similar to Amsterdam. He also developed a step drill for firing the musket that was included in an illustrated weapons manual by Jacob de Gheyn II in Wapenhandelinghe or Exerise of Arms.

This became known as the Dutch drill.

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It was widely read and emulated in the rest of Europe. Adopting and perfecting the techniques pioneered by Maurice of Nassau several decades earlier, Gustavus Adolphus repeatedly proved his techniques by defeating the armies of the Holy Roman empire — , an adversary with resources fantastically larger than Sweden's during the Thirty Years' War. Maurice' s military innovations had considerable influences on Descartes' system of philosophy. In , he started work on the Norden bombsight for the United States Navy. The first bombsight was produced in It was essentially an analog computer, and bombardiers were trained in great secrecy on how to use it.

The device was used to drop bombs accurately from an aircraft, supposedly accurate enough to hit a foot circle from an altitude of 21, feet — but under actual combat situations, such an accuracy was never achieved. A submarine snorkel is a device that allows a submarine to operate submerged while still taking in air from above the surface. It was invented by the Dutchman J. Its common military name is snort. Goalkeeper is a close-in weapon system CIWS still in use as of It is autonomous and completely automatic short-range defense of ships against highly maneuverable missiles, aircraft and fast maneuvering surface vessels.

Once activated the system automatically performs the entire process from surveillance and detection to destruction, including selection of priority targets. The first mechanical metronome was invented by Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel in Amsterdam in , but named patented after Johann Maelzel , who took the idea and popularized it. Dutch musician-physicist Adriaan Fokker designed and had built keyboard instruments capable of playing microtonal scales via a generalized keyboard.

The best-known of these is his tone equal-tempered organ , which was installed in Teylers Museum in Haarlem in It is commonly called the Fokker organ. The Kraakdoos or Cracklebox is a custom-made battery-powered noise-making electronic device. It is a small box with six metal contacts on top, which when pressed by fingers generates unusual sounds and tones. The human body becomes a part of the circuit and determines the range of sounds possible — different players generate different results.

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On 12 December , Kolff implanted an artificial heart into a dog at Cleveland Clinic. Although Galileo studied the pendulum as early as , he never actually constructed a clock based on that design. They are also sometimes referred to as "photo radar", even though many of them do not use radar. Each project was named after its manager. This vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest fully documented schooner.

The Moodswinger is a twelve-string electric zither with an additional third bridge designed by Dutch luthier Yuri Landman. The rod functions as the third bridge and divides the strings into two sections to add overtones , creating a multiphonic sound. The Springtime is an experimental electric guitar with seven strings and three outputs. Landman created the instrument in Neostoicism was a syncretic philosophical movement , joining Stoicism and Christianity. Neostoicism was founded by Dutch-Flemish humanist Justus Lipsius , who in presented its rules, expounded in his book De Constantia On Constancy , as a dialogue between Lipsius and his friend Charles de Langhe.

The eleven years — that Lipsius spent in Leiden Leiden University were the period of his greatest productivity. It was during this time that he wrote a series of works designed to revive ancient Stoicism in a form that would be compatible with Christianity. The most famous of these is De Constantia The rise of modern rationalism in the Dutch Republic, had a profound influence on the 17th-century philosophy.

Descartes is often considered to be the first of the modern rationalists. Descartes himself had lived in the Dutch Republic for some twenty years — and served for a while in the army of the Dutch military leader Prince Maurice of Orange-Nassau. The Dutch Republic was the first country in which Descartes' rationalistic philosophy Cartesianism succeeded in replacing Aristotelianism as the academic orthodoxy. Fritz Berolzheimer considers Hugo Grotius the Descartes of legal philosophy and notes Grotian rationalism 's influence on the 17th-century jurisprudence: Sometime between and it appears that Spinoza did some formal study of philosophy at the University of Leiden.

Philosophy of Spinoza Spinozism was an systematic answer to Descartes' famous dualist theory that the body and spirit are separate. Pantheism was popularized in the modern era as both a theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century Dutch Jew philosopher Baruch Spinoza , whose Ethics was an answer to Descartes ' famous dualist theory that the body and spirit are separate. Spinoza is regarded as the chief source of modern pantheism. Spinoza held that the two are the same, and this monism is a fundamental quality of his philosophy.

He was described as a "God-intoxicated man," and used the word God to describe the unity of all substance. Although the term pantheism was not coined until after his death, Spinoza is regarded as its most celebrated advocate. European liberalism, Isaiah Berlin wrote, "wears the appearance of a single coherent movement, little altered during almost three centuries, founded upon relatively simple foundations, laid by Locke or Grotius or even Spinoza ; stretching back to Erasmus and Montaigne It is impossible to exaggerate the importance of Holland in the seventeenth century, as the one country where there was freedom of speculation.

Hobbes had to have his books printed there; Locke took refuge there during the five worst years of reaction in England before ; Bayle of the Dictionary found it necessary to live there; and Spinoza would hardly have been allowed to do his work in any other country. It stood for religious toleration; it was Protestant, but of a latitudinarian rather than of a fanatical kind; it regarded the wars of religion as silly As Russell Shorto states: History has long taught that our modern sensibility comes from the eighteenth century Enlightenment.

In recent decades, historians have seen the Dutch Enlightenment of the seventeenth century as the root of the wider Enlightenment. If Descartes is still considered the father of modern philosophy , Dutch Republic can be called its cradle. Descartes is often regarded as the first thinker to emphasize the use of reason to develop the natural sciences.

Cartesianism had been controversial for several years before Descartes himself had lived in the Dutch Republic for some twenty years — Descartes served for a while in the army of the Dutch military leader Prince Maurice of Orange-Nassau , and developed a fascination for practical technology. In the s, while staying in the Dutch city Deventer , Descartes worked on a text which became published as Traite' de l'Homme Throughout his writing, he used words such as clock , automaton , and self — moving machine as interchangeable constructs.

He postulated an account of the physical world that was thoroughly materialistic. His mechanical view of nature replaced the organism model which had been popular since the Renaissance.

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In the s and s, Descartes's ideas gained a foothold at the Dutch universities. Spinozism is the monist philosophical system of the Dutch-Jewish philosopher Baruch Spinoza which defines "God" as a singular self-subsistent substance, with both matter and thought as its attributes. The term "affect" is central to what became known as the "affective turn" in the humanities and social sciences. Mandeville's paradox is named after Bernard Mandeville , who shows that actions which may be qualified as vicious with regard to individuals have benefits for society as a whole.

This is already clear from the subtitle of his most famous work, The Fable of The Bees: Mathematical intuitionism was founded by the Dutch mathematician and philosopher Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer. In the philosophy of mathematics , intuitionism, or neointuitionism opposed to preintuitionism , is an approach where mathematics is considered to be purely the result of the constructive mental activity of humans rather than the discovery of fundamental principles claimed to exist in an objective reality.

That is, logic and mathematics are not considered analytic activities wherein deep properties of objective reality are revealed and applied, but are instead considered the application of internally consistent methods used to realize more complex mental constructs, regardless of their possible independent existence in an objective reality.

Devotio Moderna , or Modern Devotion , was a movement for religious reform, calling for apostolic renewal through the rediscovery of genuine pious practices such as humility, obedience and simplicity of life. It began in the late fourteenth-century, largely through the work of Gerard Groote , and flourished in the Low Countries and Germany in the fifteenth century, but came to an end with the Protestant Reformation. Gerard Groote , father of the movement, founded the Brethren of the Common Life ; after his death, disciples established a house of Augustinian Canons at Windesheim near Zwolle , Overijssel.

These two communities became the principal exponents of Devotio Moderna. The Mennonites are a Christian group based around the church communities of Anabaptist denominations named after Menno Simons — of Friesland. Through his writings, Simons articulated and formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders. The teachings of the Mennonites were founded on their belief in both the mission and ministry of Jesus Christ , which they held to with great conviction despite persecution by various Roman Catholic and Protestant states.

The Dutch Reformed Church in Dutch: It developed during the Protestant Reformation , with its base in what became known as the Roman Catholic Church. It was founded in the s and lasted until , the year it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands.

Arminianism is based on the theological ideas of Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius — and his historic supporters known as the Remonstrants. His teachings held to the five solae of the Reformation, but they were distinct from the particular teachings of Martin Luther , Zwingli , John Calvin , and other Protestant Reformers.

Many Christian denominations have been influenced by Arminian views on the will of man being freed by grace prior to regeneration, notably the Baptists in the 16th century, the Methodists in the 18th century and the Seventh-day Adventist Church. John Wesley was influenced by Arminianism.

Also, Arminianism was an important influence in Methodism , which developed out of the Wesleyan movement. Some assert that Universalists and Unitarians in the 18th and 19th centuries were theologically linked with Arminianism. Its foundations have been recently discovered, and the 20th-century buildings on the site have been altered to resemble a 17th-century Dutch synagogue.

Jansenism was a Catholic theological movement, primarily in France , that emphasized original sin , human depravity , the necessity of divine grace , and predestination. The movement originated from the posthumously published work Augustinus of the Dutch theologian Cornelius Jansen , who died in Through the 17th and into the 18th centuries, Jansenism was a distinct movement within the Catholic Church.

Its founders were twenty-three Jews, mostly of Spanish and Portuguese origin, who had been living in Recife , Brazil.

When the Portuguese defeated the Dutch for control of Recife, and brought with them the Inquisition, the Jews of that area left. Some returned to Amsterdam , where they had originated. Others went to places in the Caribbean such as St. One group of twenty-three Jews, after a series of unexpected events, landed in New Amsterdam. After being initially rebuffed by anti-Semitic Governor Peter Stuyvesant , Jews were given official permission to settle in the colony in These pioneers fought for their rights and won permission to remain.

This marks the founding of the Congregation Shearith Israel. The first historical records of a telescope appear in patents filed by Hans Lippershey and Jacob Metius. Huygens eyepieces consist of two plano-convex lenses with the plane sides towards the eye separated by an air gap. The lenses are called the eye lens and the field lens. The focal plane is located between the two lenses. It was invented by Christiaan Huygens in the late s and was the first compound multi-lens eyepiece. These eyepieces work well with the very long focal length telescopes in Huygens day they were used with single element long focal length non-achromatic refracting telescopes , including very long focal length aerial telescopes.

This optical design is now considered obsolete since with today's shorter focal length telescopes the eyepiece suffers from short eye relief, high image distortion, chromatic aberration, and a very narrow apparent field of view. Since these eyepieces are cheap to make they can often be found on inexpensive telescopes and microscopes. Other cemented eyepieces can be damaged by the intense, concentrated light of the Sun. Using an improved simple microscope , in Antonie van Leeuwenhoek becomes the first to discover, observe, describe, study and conduct scientific experiments with single-celled organisms, which he originally referred to as animalcules , and which now referred to as micro-organisms or microbes.

His simple microscopes were made of silver or copper frames, holding specially shaped single glass sphere that acted as a small lens. The smaller the sphere, the more in magnified. Those that have survived are capable of magnification up to times. It is suspected that Van Leeuwenhoek possessed units that could magnify up to times. The cycloid pendulum was invented by Christiaan Huygens in Its purpose is to eliminate the lack of isochronism of the ordinary simple pendulum.

This is achieved by making the mass point move on a cycloid instead of a circular arc. The pyrometer , invented by Pieter van Musschenbroek , is a temperature measuring device. A simple type uses a thermocouple placed either in a furnace or on the item to be measured. The voltage output of the thermocouple is read from a meter. A Leyden jar , or Leiden jar , is a device that "stores" static electricity between two electrodes on the inside and outside of a glass jar.

It was the original form of a capacitor originally known as a "condenser". The invention was named for the city. The Leyden jar was used to conduct many early experiments in electricity , and its discovery was of fundamental importance in the study of electricity. Previously, researchers had to resort to insulated conductors of large dimensions to store a charge. The Leyden jar provided a much more compact alternative. Like many early electrical devices, there was no particular use for the Leyden jar at first, other than to allow scientists to do a greater variety of electrical experiments.

Benjamin Franklin , for example, used a Leyden jar to store electricity from lightning in his famous kite experiment in By doing so he proved that lightning was really electricity. The idea for the Leyden jar was discovered independently by two parties: These scientists developed the Leyden jar while working under a theory of electricity that saw electricity as a fluid, and hoped to develop the jar to "capture" this fluid. In von Kleist lined a glass jar with silver foil, and charged the foil with a friction machine.

Kleist was convinced that a substantial electric charge could be collected when he received a significant shock from the device. The effects of this "Kleistian jar" were independently discovered around the same time by Dutch scientists Pieter van Musschenbroek and Cunaeus at the University of Leiden. Van Musschenbroek communicated on it with the French scientific community where it was called the Leyden jar.

It took Eisinga seven years to build his planetarium , completing it in The orrery still exists and is the world's oldest working planetarium. Kipp's apparatus , also called a Kipp generator, is designed for preparation of small volumes of gases. It was invented around by Dutch pharmacist Petrus Jacobus Kipp and widely used in chemical laboratories and for demonstrations in schools into the second half of the 20th century. In optical microscopy many objects such as cell parts in protozoans , bacteria and sperm tails are essentially fully transparent unless stained and therefore killed.

The difference in densities and composition within these objects however often gives rise to changes in the phase of light passing through them, hence they are sometimes called "phase objects". Using the phase-contrast technique makes these structures visible and allows the study of living specimens. This phase contrast technique proved to be such an advancement in microscopy that Dutch physicist Frits Zernike was awarded the Nobel Prize in It selects pions and focuses them into a sharp beam.

Its original application was in the context of neutrino physics, where beams of pions have to be tightly focused. When the pions then decay into muons and neutrinos or antineutrinos, an equally well-focused neutrino beam is obtained. The muons were stopped in a wall of tons of iron and tons of concrete, leaving the neutrinos or antineutrinos to reach the Gargamelle bubble chamber.

A golf -like game kolf in Dutch is recorded as taking place on 26 February , in a city called Loenen aan de Vecht, where the Dutch played a game with a stick and leather ball. The winner was whomever hit the ball with the least number of strokes into a target several hundred yards away. Some scholars argue that this game of putting a small ball in a hole in the ground using clubs was also played in 17th-century Netherlands and that this predates the game in Scotland.

The Dutch played a significant role in the history of ice skating including speed skating and figure skating. The first feature of ice skating in a work of art was made in the 15th century. The picture, depicted Saint Lidwina , patron saint of ice skaters, falling on the ice. Another important aspect is a man seen in the background, who is skating on one leg.

This means that his skates must have had sharp edges similar to those found on modern ice skates. Until the 17th century, ice skating was mostly used for transportation. Upon his return to England in , the King brought two innovations in ice skating — a pair of iron skates and the Dutch roll. The Dutch roll was the first form of a gliding or skating motion made possible by the iron skate's two edges. However, speed skating was the focus of the Dutch, while the English developed modern figure skating.

Speed skating , which had developed in the Netherlands in the 17th century, was given a boost by the innovations in skate construction. Speed skating, or speedskating, is a competitive form of skating in which skaters race each other over a certain distance. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating , short track speed skating and marathon speed skating.

In the modern Olympic Games , long-track speed skating is usually referred to as just "speed skating", while short-track speed skating is known as "short track". Sailing, also known as yachting , is a sport in which competitors race from point to point, or around a race course, in sail-powered boats. Yachting refers to recreational sailing or boating , the specific act of sailing or using other water vessels for sporting purposes. The invention of sailing is prehistoric, but the racing of sailing boats is believed to have started in the Netherlands some time in the 17th century.

The sport's popularity spread across the British Isles. The world's first yacht club was founded in Cork , Ireland in The International Skating Union ISU is the international governing body for competitive ice skating disciplines, including figure skating , synchronized skating , speed skating , and short track speed skating. It was founded in Scheveningen , Netherlands, in , making it the oldest governing international winter sport federation [] and one of the oldest international sport federations.

Korfball Korfbal in Dutch is a mixed gender team sport , with similarities to netball and basketball. A team consists of eight players; four female and four male. A team also includes a coach. It was founded in the Netherlands in by Nico Broekhuysen. The Cruijff Turn also known as Cruyff Turn , is a famous dribbling trick in football , was perfected by the Dutch football player Johan Cruijff for whom the evasive trick was named. To make this move, the player first looks to pass or cross the ball.

However, instead of kicking it, he drags the ball behind his planted foot with the inside of his other foot, turns through degrees and accelerates away. The foundations for Total Football Dutch: Rinus Michels , who played under Reynolds, later became manager of Ajax and refined the concept into what is known today as "Total Football" Totaalvoetbal in Dutch language , using it in his training for the Ajax Amsterdam squad and the Netherlands national football team in the s. Johan Cruyff was the system's most famous exponent. Due to Cruyff's style of play, he is still referred to as the total footballer.

The invention of totaalvoetbal helped lay the foundations for the significant successes of Dutch football at both club and international level in the s. During that decade, the Dutch football rose from almost total obscurity to become a powerhouse in world football. Since then everything looks more or less the same to me…. FC Barcelona and the Spanish national football team play a style of football known as Tiki-taka that has its roots in Total Football. Johan Cruyff founded Tiki-taka commonly spelled tiqui-taca in Spanish during his time as manager of FC Barcelona — The Netherlands revived the construction of canals during the 13th—14th century that had generally been discontinued since the fall of the Roman Empire.

They also contributed in the development of canal construction technology, such as introducing the first flash locks in Europe. The first pound lock in Europe was built by the Dutch in at Vreeswijk , where a canal from Utrecht joins the river Lek. Around the s, Cornelis Drebbel developed an automatic temperature control system for a furnace , motivated by his belief that base metals could be turned to gold by holding them at a precise constant temperature for long periods of time.

He also used this temperature regulator in an incubator for hatching chickens. Feedback control has been used for centuries to regulate engineered systems. In the 17th century, Drebbel invented one of the earliest devices to use feedback , an chicken incubator that used a damper controlled by a thermostat to maintain a constant temperature.

The magic lantern is an optical device , an early type of image projector developed in the 17th century. People have been projecting images using concave mirrors and pin-hole cameras camera obscura since Roman times. But glass lens technology wasn't sufficiently developed to make advanced optical devices such as telescope and microscope until the 17th century.

With pinhole cameras and camera obscura it was only possible to project an image of actual scene, such as an image of the sun, on a surface. The magic lantern on the other hand could project a painted image on a surface, and marks the point where cameras and projectors became two different kinds of devices. There has been some debate about who the original inventor of the magic lantern is, but the most widely accepted theory is that Christiaan Huygens developed the original device in the late s.

He describes a device such as the magic lantern in his book Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae. This is what paved the way for the use of colour and for double-layered slide projections generally used to simulate movement. The first allusion to a 'magic lantern' is by Huygens in the s and he is generally credited with inventing it — though he didn't want to admit it, considering it frivolous.

Huygens was the first to describe a fully functioning magic lantern , one he made, and wrote about it in a work in Images were hand painted onto the glass slide until the midth century when photographic slides were employed. Huygens introduced this curiosity to the Danish mathematician Thomas Walgenstein who realized its commercial value for entertainment and traveled through Europe — mostly France and Italy — demonstrating his machine to foreign princes and selling them replicas for their own amusement.

The forerunner of the modern slide projector as well as moving pictures, magic lanterns retained their popularity for centuries and were also the first optical toy to be used for family entertainment in the home. In Amsterdam, the Superintendent of the Fire Brigade, Jan van der Heyden , and his son Nicholaas took firefighting to its next step with the fashioning of the first fire hose in A gunpowder engine , also known as an explosion engine or Huygens' engine , is a type of internal combustion engine using gunpowder as its fuel.

It was considered essentially as the first rudimentary internal combustion piston engine. Gunpowder was inserted into the tube and lit through a small hole at the base, like a cannon. The expanding gasses would drive the piston up the tube until the reached a point near the top. Here, the piston uncovered holes in the tube that allowed any remaining hot gasses to escape. The weight of the piston and the vacuum formed by the cooling gasses in the now-closed cylinder drew the piston back into the tube, lifting a test mass to provide power.

The cylinder was held down to a base where the gunpowder sat, making it a breech loading design. The gasses escaped via two leather tubes attached at the top of the barrel. When the piston reached them the gasses blew the tubes open, and when the pressure fell, gravity pulled the leather down causing the tubes droop to the side of the cylinder, sealing the holes. The Hollander beater is a machine developed by the Dutch in to produce pulp from cellulose -containing plant fibers.

It replaced stamp mills for preparing pulp because the Hollander could produce in one day the same quantity of pulp that a stamp mill could produce in eight. In , Maastricht -born chemist Jan Pieter Minckelers used coal gas for lighting and developed the first form of gas lighting. A meat slicer , also called a slicing machine , deli slicer or simply a slicer , is a tool used in butcher shops and delicatessens to slice meats and cheeses.

A pentode is an electronic device having five active electrodes. The term most commonly applies to a three-grid vacuum tube thermionic valve , which was invented by the Dutchman Bernhard D.

List of Dutch inventions and discoveries

Philishave was the brand name for electric shavers manufactured by the Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care unit of Philips in the US, the Norelco name is used. The Philishave shaver was invented by Philips engineer Alexandre Horowitz , who used rotating cutters instead of the reciprocating cutters that had been used in previous electric shavers. A gyrator is a passive , linear, lossless, two-port electrical network element invented by Tellegen as a hypothetical fifth linear element after the resistor , capacitor , inductor and ideal transformer.

Dutch company Gatsometer BV , founded by the s rally driver Maurice Gatsonides , invented the first traffic enforcement camera. Gatsonides wished to better monitor his speed around the corners of a race track and came up with the device in order to improve his time around the circuit. Because of this, in some countries speed cameras are sometimes referred to as " Gatsos ".

They are also sometimes referred to as "photo radar", even though many of them do not use radar. The first systems introduced in the late s used film cameras , replaced by digital cameras beginning in the late s. Variomatic is the stepless, fully automatic transmission of the Dutch car manufacturer DAF , originally developed by Hub van Doorne. The Variomatic was introduced in DAF , the first automatic gear box made in the Netherlands. It continues in use in motorscooters. Variomatic was the first commercially successful continuously variable transmissions CVT. A Red light camera is a traffic enforcement camera that captures an image of a vehicle that enters an intersection against a red traffic light.

By automatically photographing such vehicles, the camera produces evidence that assists authorities in their enforcement of traffic laws. The first red light camera system was introduced in , using tubes stretched across the road to detect the violation and trigger the camera. One of the first developers of these red light camera systems was Dutch company Gatsometer BV.

Stochastic cooling is a form of particle beam cooling. It is used in some particle accelerators and storage rings to control the emission of particle beams. This process uses the electrical signals that the individual charged particles generate in a feedback loop to reduce the tendency of individual particles to move away from other particles in the beam. By increasing the particle density to close to the required energy, this technique improved the beam quality and, inter alia, brought the discovery of W and Z bosons within reach.

The clap skate also called clapskates, slap skates, slapskates is a type of ice skate used in speed skating. These ash residues are reduced in a cremulator for subsequent scattering or in an urn. In the 14th century, the Dutch started using wooden platform skates with flat iron bottom runners. The skates were attached to the skater's shoes with leather straps and poles were used to propel the skater. Around , the Dutch shifted to a narrow metal double edged blade, so the skater could now push and glide with his feet, eliminating the need for a pole.

A herring buss Dutch: Haringbuis was a type of seagoing fishing vessel , used by Dutch and Flemish herring fishermen in the 15th through early 19th centuries. The Buis was first adapted for use as a fishing vessel in the Netherlands, after the invention of gibbing made it possible to preserve herring at sea. The first herring buss was probably built in Hoorn around The last one was built in Vlaardingen in Originally defined as a light, fast sailing vessel used by the Dutch navy to pursue pirates and other transgressors around and into the shallow waters of the Low Countries.

Later, yachts came to be perceived as luxury, or recreational vessels. Fluyt , a type of sailing vessel originally designed as a dedicated cargo vessel. Originating from the Netherlands in the 16th century, the vessel was designed to facilitate transoceanic delivery with the maximum of space and crew efficiency.

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The inexpensive ship could be built in large numbers. This ship class was credited with enhancing Dutch competitiveness in international trade and was widely employed by the Dutch East India Company in the 17th and 18th centuries. The fluyt was a significant factor in the 17th century rise of the Dutch seaborne empire. Cornelis Corneliszoon was the inventor of the wind-powered sawmill.

Sawing was slow and required strong and durable sawmen. The topsawer had to be the stronger of the two because the saw was pulled in turn by each man, and the lower had the advantage of gravity. The topsawyer also had to guide the saw to produce a plank of even thickness. This was often done by following a chalkline. Early sawmills adapted the whipsaw to mechanical power, generally driven by a water wheel to speed up the process. The circular motion of the wheel was changed to back-and-forth motion of the saw blade by a pitman thus introducing a term used in many mechanical applications.

A pitman is similar to a crankshaft used in reverse. A crankshaft converts back-and-forth motion to circular motion. Generally only the saw was powered and the logs had to be loaded and moved by hand. An early improvement was the development of a movable carriage, also water powered, to steadily advance the log through the saw blade. A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts , the foremast being no taller than the rear mast s. Such vessels were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century but may not have been called that at the time.

Schooners first evolved from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast and estuaries of the Netherlands in the late 17th century. Most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants and Dutch nobility.

This vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest fully documented schooner. Schooners were immediately popular with colonial traders and fishermen in North America with the first documented reference to a schooner in America appearing in Boston port records in According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat , the term schooner comes from scoon , while the sch spelling comes from the later adoption of the Dutch spelling "schoener". Another study suggests that a Dutch expression praising ornate schooner yachts in the 17th century, "een schoone Schip", may have led to the term "schooner" being used by English speakers to describe the early versions of the schooner rig as it evolved in England and America.

It offered a carriage with sails, of which a little model was preserved in Scheveningen until