But the Allies - at war in the Atlantic as well as the Pacific - were woefully short of ships and besides, the navy was at odds with MacArthur's plan to recapture the Philippines, a strategy as much political as military. But the Allies - at war in the Atlantic as well as the Pacific - were woefully short of ships and besides, the navy was at odds with MacArthur's plan to recapture the Philippines, a strategy as much political as military..
With much on the Naval Battles and the suicide Kamikaze pilots. Illustrated with photographs, and a notes section, and bibliography. Illustrated with black and white photographs. Small dot remainder mark on bottom page edges, else fine in fine dustwrapper. Between the Covers- Rare Books, Inc. Binding is Cloth Bds.. Black cloth spine with white lettering and green paper over boards, pictorial dust jacket.
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This copy of MacArthur's Navy: He urged his front line commanders on. The first phase, the invasion of Kyushu , known as Operation Olympic, was scheduled to commence on November 1, A series of 52 amphibious landings were made in the central and southern Philippines between February and July Heavy wear to cover.
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In the event of a problem we guarantee full refund. Douglas MacArthur, the army commander, needed the cooperation of the navy to conduct operations and move troops. But the Allies-at war in the Atlantic as well as the Pacific-were woefully short of ships and, besides, the navy was at odds with MacArthur's plan to recapture the Philippines, a strategy as much political as military.
Then, slowly, the war's tide began to turn. Allied forces stopped the Japanese advance in the Solomons and New Guinea. Ships were made available for the series of amphibious assaults that were to drive the Japanese back to their home islands.
And so the Seventh Fleet was created, and ship by ship MacArthur began to receive the naval support he'd been clamoring for. New Britain, Cape Gloucester, Hollandia, Biak- these are places forgotten by all but those who fought there and the families of those who died there. Yet with each landing the Allies gained experience, learning valuable lessons about military planning and execution. In the end, MacArthur prevailed. He got both his navy and his strategy.
Two of them arrived, and brought the entire group to Australia. His famous speech, in which he said, "I came out of Bataan and I shall return", was first made at Terowie , a small railway township in South Australia on March Upon his arrival in Adelaide, MacArthur abbreviated this to the now-famous, "I came through and I shall return" that made headlines.
He ignored the request. For his leadership in the defense of the Philippines, General Marshall decided to award MacArthur the Medal of Honor, the decoration for which he had twice previously been nominated. It was admitted that MacArthur had not actually performed acts of valor in battle on Bataan but the award to Charles Lindbergh set a precedent.
MacArthur chose to accept the medal on the basis that "this award was intended not so much for me personally as it is a recognition of the indomitable courage of the gallant army which it was my honor to command. They remained the only pair until when Theodore Roosevelt was awarded posthumously for his service during the Spanish—American War , Theodore Roosevelt, Jr.
Although predominantly Australian and American, MacArthur's command also included small numbers of personnel from the Netherlands East Indies, the United Kingdom, and other countries. MacArthur's office and Willoughby's G-2 section were located on the 8th floor now the MacArthur Museum , while other staff sections occupied the four floors below. MacArthur formed his own signals intelligence organization, known as the Central Bureau , from Australian intelligence units and American cryptanalysts who had escaped from the Philippines;  this unit forwarded Ultra information to Willoughby for analysis.
Anticipating that the Japanese would strike at Port Moresby again, the garrison was strengthened and MacArthur ordered the establishment of new bases at Merauke and Milne Bay to cover its flanks. MacArthur's proposal for an attack on the main Japanese base at Rabaul met with objections from the U. Navy, which favored a less ambitious approach and objected to an Army general being in command of what would be an amphibious operation. The resulting compromise called for a three-stage advance, with the first, the seizure of the Tulagi area , being conducted by the Pacific Ocean Areas command , under Admiral Chester W.
The Australians soon defeated the Japanese at Milne Bay,  but a series of defeats in the Kokoda Track campaign had a depressing effect back in Australia. The 32nd Infantry Division , a poorly trained United States National Guard division, was selected to carry out a flanking maneuver. Eichelberger to "take Buna, or not come back alive. Kenney to replace him. Owing to a shortage of resources, particularly heavy bomber aircraft, the final stage of the plan, the capture of Rabaul itself, was postponed until My strategic conception for the Pacific Theater, which I outlined after the Papuan Campaign and have since consistently advocated, contemplates massive strokes against only main strategic objectives, utilizing surprise and air-ground striking power supported and assisted by the fleet.
This is the very opposite of what is termed "island hopping" which is the gradual pushing back of the enemy by direct frontal pressure with the consequent heavy casualties which will certainly be involved. Key points must of course be taken but a wise choice of such will obviate the need for storming the mass of islands now in enemy possession. New conditions require for solution and new weapons require for maximum application new and imaginative methods. Wars are never won in the past. As a result, "it became obvious that any military offensive in the South-West Pacific in would have to be carried out mainly by the Australian Army.
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In New Guinea , a country without roads, large-scale transportation of men and material would have to be accomplished by aircraft or ships. A multi-pronged approach was employed to solve this problem. Disassembled landing craft were shipped to Australia, where they were assembled in Cairns. Although a few long-range P Lightning fighters had arrived in SWPA in late , further deliveries were suspended owing to the demands of Operation Torch.
The next day MacArthur watched the landing at Nadzab by paratroops of the rd Parachute Infantry from a B circling overhead. The B made the trip on three engines because one failed soon after leaving Port Moresby, but MacArthur insisted that it fly on to Nadzab. MacArthur advanced his timetable, and ordered the 7th Division to capture Kaiapit and Dumpu , while the 9th Division mounted an amphibious assault on Finschhafen. Here, the offensive bogged down. Part of the problem was that MacArthur had based his decision to assault Finschhafen on Willoughby's assessment that there were only Japanese defenders at Finschhafen when there were actually nearly 5, A furious battle ensued.
In early November, MacArthur's plan for a westward advance along the coast of New Guinea to the Philippines was incorporated into plans for the war against Japan approved at the Cairo Conference. Although his intelligence staff did not agree that the islands had been evacuated, MacArthur ordered an amphibious landing on Los Negros Island , marking the beginning of the Admiralty Islands campaign.
Kinkaid , who had recently replaced Carpender as commander of the Seventh Fleet. MacArthur, who came ashore with Kinkaid only seven hours after the first wave of landing craft, was awarded the Bronze Star for his actions in this campaign. MacArthur now bypassed the Japanese forces at Hansa Bay and Wewak , and assaulted Hollandia and Aitape , which Willoughby reported to be lightly defended.
Although they were out of range of the Fifth Air Force's fighters based in the Ramu Valley, the timing of the operation allowed the aircraft carriers of the Pacific Fleet to provide air support. Because the Japanese were not expecting an attack, the garrison was weak, and Allied casualties were correspondingly light. However, the terrain turned out to be less suitable for airbase development than first thought, forcing MacArthur to seek better locations further west. Moreover, while bypassing Japanese forces had great tactical merit, it had the serious strategic drawback of tying up large numbers of Allied troops in order to contain them, and Adachi was far from beaten.
In the Battle of Driniumor River , he would bring on "the New Guinea campaign's bloodiest and most strategically useless battle. MacArthur emphasized the moral and political issues involved in a decision to liberate or bypass Luzon. He also spoke briefly of his plan to use the Australian Army to liberate Indonesia. Although the issue was not settled, both Roosevelt and Leahy were convinced of the soundness of MacArthur's plan. Opposition was feeble and Halsey concluded that Leyte was "wide open" and possibly undefended, and recommended that projected operations be skipped in favor of an assault on Leyte.
That afternoon he arrived off the beach. The advance had not progressed far; snipers were still active and the area was under sporadic mortar fire. When his whaleboat grounded in knee-deep water, MacArthur requested a landing craft, but the beachmaster was too busy to grant his request.
MacArthur was compelled to wade ashore. People of the Philippines: By the grace of Almighty God our forces stand again on Philippine soil — soil consecrated in the blood of our two peoples. We have come dedicated and committed to the task of destroying every vestige of enemy control over your daily lives, and of restoring upon a foundation of indestructible strength, the liberties of your people.
Since Leyte was out of range of Kenney's land-based aircraft, MacArthur was entirely dependent on carrier aircraft for cover. MacArthur enjoyed staying on Nashville ' s bridge during air raids, although several bombs landed close by, and two nearby cruisers were hit.
MacArthur attributed the near-disaster to command being divided between himself and Nimitz. The timing of the assault so late in the year forced the combat troops, pilots, and the supporting logistical units to contend with heavy monsoonal rains that disrupted the airbase construction program. Adverse weather and valiant Japanese resistance slowed the American advance ashore.
MacArthur was forced to ask Nimitz to recall the carriers to support the Sixth Army but they proved to be no substitute for land-based aircraft, and the lack of air cover permitted the Japanese Army to pour troops into Leyte. MacArthur's next move was the invasion of Mindoro , where there were good potential airfield sites around the San Jose area. Willoughby estimated, correctly as it turned out, that the island had only about 1, Japanese defenders.
The problem this time was getting there. A parachute drop was considered, but the airfields on Leyte lacked the space to hold the required transport aircraft. Kinkaid balked at sending escort carriers into the restricted waters of the Sulu Sea , and Kenney could not guarantee land based air cover. The operation was clearly hazardous, and MacArthur's staff talked him out of accompanying the invasion on the Nashville. As the invasion force entered the Sulu Sea, a kamikaze struck Nashville , killing people and wounding more, including the task force commander, Brigadier General William C.
The landings were made unopposed on December 15, , and within two weeks Australian and American engineers had three airstrips in operation, but "not since Anzio had the navy experienced so much difficulty supporting an amphibious operation after the initial landing. The way was now clear for the invasion of Luzon.