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In more representative samples or in samples of patients with diseases that affect the central nervous system e. In relation to the large number of psychological test variables, the sample size was too small to maintain significance after Bonferroni correction. Furthermore, we only conducted three BCI sessions, which may not be sufficient for learning. Another limitation is the low correlation of the visuo-motor coordination ability and SMR-BCI performance and the lack of significance in the regression model in the current data set.
However, when enlarging the data set the predictor could be consolidated. Psychological variables explain a moderate amount of the variance of SMR feedback performance. Visuo-motor coordination abilities could be consolidated as a small predictor of performance. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
The authors declare no competing financial interests. The authors thank Frederike Beyer and Florian Baumgartner for their valuable support. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Hum Neurosci v.
Published online Aug 6. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 24; Accepted Jul The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Introduction Prediction of behavior, performance or decisions of individuals or groups is a popular theme in modern psychology research.
Since those results serve as a basis for the current study, we present a summery about the methods, results and implications: Aims of the current study Firstly, we were aiming at replicating and thereby consolidating the two psychological predictors previously found. Experimental paradigms Two different feedback paradigms were used to feedback SMR modulation to the participants.
Open in a separate window. Experimental schedule All participants attended one session for assessment of the psychological test battery prior to BCI training see Section Psychological Test Battery. Psychological test battery Following Hammer et al. Statistical analysis Normal distributions of data were checked with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and with visual inspection of the QQ-Plots. Table 1 Regression coefficients for standard regression models and for robust regression analyses. Stability of the prediction model Although the 2HAND failed significance in the entire regression analysis, the correlation with SMR feedback performance was at a similar level as in Hammer et al.
Discussion The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether psychological variables could predict performance with a BCI based on modulation of SMR and whether we could validate our previously found predictors of such performance. Practical implications Obviously, the practical value of the visuo-motor coordination ability for predicting later SMR-BCI performance is low because this predictor cannot be assessed and trained in potential BCI users in the locked-in state, in who no muscular movement is possible.
Limitations Finally, some limitations of the current study must be mentioned: Conclusions Psychological variables explain a moderate amount of the variance of SMR feedback performance. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Acknowledgments The authors declare no competing financial interests. Principles and Practice , eds Wolpaw J.
General achievement motivation and approach performance goals were higher in Turkish pupils. Normal distributions of data were checked with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and with visual inspection of the QQ-Plots. Some features of WorldCat will not be available. According to Hammer et al. Linked Data More info about Linked Data. About the article Published Online:
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