Her skills are writing, playing basketball, long-distance running, and cooking. Akiko's twin sister is Natsuko. She is represented with Rising Production. Asahi is a member of the idol group Maintenance. Her husband was actor Masato Furuoya. Yumi Kamijo Tenshi no harawata: Lynch Sachiko Asa wa Dameyo! He was an announcer for TV Asahi. Fuji TV Waratte Iitomo She is represented with Platinum Production. Kuwashima is currently affiliated with Aoni Production. Matsushita grew up in Nagoya, Aichi Prefecture. She is represented with Amuse, Inc.
The Movie Shoko Ozaki Oh! White Fang Monotagari as the role of Mary Scott, Katsuki has lent her voice to several notable anime, Japanese-dubbed films and TV series, games, drama CDs, narration, and commercials. Some of her best-known roles include: He is also a lyricist, actor, and multi-tarento. He can also sing songs and advertisement songs. Kobayashi is represented by Astro Music. He is the director of the Japan Songwriters Association J-scat. His songs are used in advertisements and television themes. He is affiliated with Gekidan Himawari. One of his best-known roles early in his career was as Roxas in the Kingdom Hearts video game series.
He voiced Gin in the anime film Hotarubi no Mori e which has played at many film festivals around the world. She is represented with Office Some One Self. Biography Maru graduated from the Tokyo Actors Studio. In the late s, she was a reporter that appeared in news programmes etc. She divorced her husband Eiichiro Funakoshi in December, She is represented by the Kazuyo Matsui Jimusho agency. She was represented with Gekidan For You. NTV Aniki Mrs. From and , she was known as "Mini Stop-chan", acting as the mascot for the Ministop convenience store chain commercials in Japan. She is the owner of a unique voice and has held a recital with upcoming star Satoshi Tsumabuki.
Diancie and the Cocoon of Destruction. During the Indigo League season, she also voiced Ritchie's Pikachu nicknamed "Sparky" in both versions. She is bilingual; the first being Japanese and the second is English. She voices officer Miwako Sato in the long-running anime series Case Closed. Spring Eiko Hoshina  Zoids: Fuzors Sandra  Yakitate!! Ishizuka was known for his deep, strong voice and is often cast in the role of older mature male characters, such as Jet Black from Cowboy Bebop, Eugene Gallardo from Tales of Rebirth and Captain Matthews in the Xenosaga trilogy.
He was also the fourth Japanese voice of Heihachi Mishima in the Tekken video game series, and the second Japanese voice for Mr. Satan in the Dragon Ball franchise, taking over both role His best-known role is voicing Takeshi Goda in the Doraemon series, which has spawned numerous specials.
Biography Kimura was born in Leipzig and raised in Japan. After spending 7 years in Germany, after returning to the theater company belongs to a Sanno Production. In , he appeared as a tap dancer in the Broadway musical Annie and started a career. When he was in elementary school, He appeared as an elementary school student who resembled Kenji Haga in the impersonation program "Mimakin" of Nippon TV, surprised all the performers.
Initially handed over was an active junior high sch He was born in Kamigamo Shrine of the Shinto shrine of bushi samurais. Nanjing Massacre denial Suzuki denied Nanjing Massacre. He was represented by the agency Pickles. His daughter is model and tarento Anna Umemiya. Filmography Year Title Role Ref. Hisha-kaku Dai Hachiku ute Itai: His trade name is Yorozuya. Biography Kiki was born in the Kanda area of Tokyo as the daughter of a master of the biwa lute.
She graduated from Yukitani High School. Retrieved September 13, Retrieved October 11, Archived from the original on 14 Apr Retrieved 17 Jan Archived from the original on 5 Apr Archived from the original on 13 Apr Archived from the original on 9 Apr Archived from the original on 9 Feb Archived from the original on 13 Mar Archived from the original on 28 Feb Archived from the original on 18 Jan Archived from the original on 18 Oct Archived from the original on 15 Dec Archived from the original on 23 Dec Archived from the original on 16 Mar Socialism may also refer to: Scientific socialism, a method of analysis pioneered by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels and used to analyze capitalism, where socialism is postulated to emerge from capitalist development; in the late 19th century it widely became known as Marxism Socialist mode of production, a more specific concept of socialist organization articulated by Marxist theory of historical materialism Socialist Party, or capital-s "Socialists", the policies and practices of titular Socialist political parties irrespective of whether or not they adhere to the implementation of a socialist system Socialist Party disambiguation , variations on the above Socialist state, a country governed by a socialist party with the constitutional aim of constructing s This anime follows a cute year-old girl named Mimu Emilton, who dreams of becoming a singing idol, much like her own idol, Yuri.
Yuri brought world peace through her music, and became the world's president. Mimu has a chance to audition in her hometown of Starland in front of Yuri, with the help of 6 "Excellent Idols" Yuri's successors. However, before Mimu has the chance to sing in front of Yuri and the Excellent Idols, they minus Yuri are kidnapped by aliens and taken to another universe. The group land on the Tropical Dimension's Bali Hawaii, where they are warmly welcomed.
A competition is to begin in two hours to raise Bali Hawaii's sun, and idols from all over space arrive to take part. The owner, Mr Bananaan, desires for the Excellent Idols to win, since they are his most recent obsession. The competition includes several activities, such as the Swing S It was a large-scale project in which the public "produces" a girl group by voting for members out of a pool of 96 contestants from South Korea and Japan, as well as voting for the group's concept, name and debut single. The winning 12 contestants, with no nationality caps, as voted only by Korean viewers, would promote as a group for two and a half years.
The show announced the final 12 members who made it into, as well as the official name of the group Iz One during the finale on August 31, Produced by AKATV the company that also produced the second season of Produce for Mnet, the show premiered on June 15, , and concluded on August 31, , for 12 episodes.
It was directed by Ahn Joon-young, who a The season features 20 new contestants divided into two tribes embodied by two biblical figures: The season premiered on September 26, , with an extended minute episode. Gen X, which had also been filmed in Fiji two years earlier.
Goliath introduced a new game advantage called the idol nullifier, which allows its owner to void an immunity idol if they correctly predict during the tribal council vote on whom it will be played. At age 6, she auditioned for Hello! Project Kids in and later became part of the girl group Cute under the Hello!
Her audition tape was aired on Morning Musume's variety show Hello!
Project artists under the name "H. Personal life He is the youngest in his family and has two older sisters. His hometown is Changwon. He suffers from narcolepsy. When the company went bankrupt, he went to court to end his contract. He trained with Rain who was the group's founder and mentor. Their performance was met with praise, with many concert spectators and fans considering them to be the next TVXQ. She first gained recognition when she joined Hello!
Project Kids and later became the lead vocalist of the Japanese idol girl group Cute from to Throughout her singing career, Suzuki also became a vocalist for the pop rock girl group Buono!. From June onwards, she became an exclusive model for the fashion magazine Ray. Project Kids, 4Kids, and Aa! In , Suzuki auditioned for Hello! Melon Kinenbi is the oldest group in the history of Hello!
Project not to have changed any of its members since its formation. The band occasionally worked as dancers for other Hello! Project artists; they can, for instance, be seen in the music video for Maki Goto's single "Yaruki! The entire group officially graduated from the Hello! Project on March 31, , along with the rest of the Elder Club. After their graduation, they collaborated with other Japanese punk-rock groups for several limited-release indie singles, and released their 4th album Melon's Not Dead. Two days after the album release and just after their year anniversary, the group announced that they would disband following their final tour activities in May BiS Japanese idol group.
The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 23 March Archived from the original on 10 July HuffPost Japan in Japanese. Bell, Clive September Member feedback about BiS Japanese idol group: Started in in Japan Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about BIS: Member feedback about BiSH: Japanese idol groups Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Japanese idol topic AKB48, a Guinness World Record holder for being the "largest pop group", and are the best-selling idol group.
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Primal topic Look up primal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. List of Produce 48 contestants topic Produce 48 is a South Korean competition television show on Mnet in which a girl group is formed from a large pool of South Korean and Japanese idols, most of whom are represented by major idol talent agencies such as AKB Member feedback about List of Produce 48 contestants: Produce 48 contestants Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Iz One: Singing talent show winners Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about V-u-den: Member feedback about Urya-Oi!!!: Member feedback about Bisukete: Member feedback about Babymetal: Japanese-language singers Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
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After School group topic After School Hangul: Member feedback about After School group: Avex Group artists Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Aokigahara in popular culture: Popular culture Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. People from Shizuoka Prefecture Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Vanilla Beans band: Member feedback about Sora Tokui: Manga artists Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Socialism disambiguation topic Socialism is a political philosophy and economic system based on the social ownership and control of the means of production; as well as the political and economic theories, ideologies and movements that aim to establish a socialist system.
Member feedback about Idol Project: Comedy anime and manga Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Produce 48 topic Produce 48 Hangul: Member feedback about Produce South Korean variety television programmes Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Survivor: Finally, the VEI 2 eruption of Shinmoedake demonstrated that the already implemented mitigation strategies have increased resilience and improved recovery of affected infrastructures.
Nevertheless, the extent to which these mitigation actions will perform during the VEI 4 eruption presented here is unclear and our hazard assessment points to possible damages on the Sakurajima peninsula and the neighboring municipality of Tarumizu. Eruption mass estimation using infrasound waveform inversion and ash and gas measurements: Evaluation at Sakurajima Volcano , Japan [Comparison of eruption masses at Sakurajima Volcano , Japan calculated by infrasound waveform inversion and ground-based sampling.
Eruption mass and mass flow rate are critical parameters for determining the aerial extent and hazard of volcanic emissions. Infrasound waveform inversion is a promising technique to quantify volcanic emissions. Although topography may substantially alter the infrasound waveform as it propagates, advances in wave propagation modeling and station coverage permit robust inversion of infrasound data from volcanic explosions.
The inversion can estimate eruption mass flow rate and total eruption mass if the flow density is known. Furthermore we present a robust full-waveform acoustic inversion method, and use it to calculate eruption flow rates and masses from 49 explosions from Sakurajima Volcano , Japan. Observations in the vicinity of summit area of active volcanoes are very important from various viewpoints such as understanding physical processes in the volcanic conduit. It is, however, highly difficult to install observation sensors near active vents because of the risk of sudden eruptions.
We have been developing a safe volcano observation system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle UAV. We have also developed earthquake observation modules and GPS receiver modules that are exclusively designed for UAV installation at summit areas of active volcanoes. These modules are light weight, compact size, and solar powered. For data transmission, a commercial cellular-phone network is used. Our first application of the sensor installation by the UAV is Sakurajima , one of the most active volcanos in Japan.
In November , , and , we installed up to four seismic sensors within 2km from the active summit crater. In the and operations, we succeeded in pulling up and collecting the sensor modules by using the UAV. In the experiment, we installed two GPS receivers near the summit area of Sakurajima volcano. We also applied the UAV installation to another active volcano , Shinmoedake in Kirishima volcano group. Since the sub-plinian eruption in February , entering the area 3km from the summit of Shinmoe-dake has been prohibited.
Although the ground coupling of the seismic modules is not perfect due to the way they are installed, the signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic signals recorded by these modules is fairly good. Despite the low antenna height of 50 cm from the ground surface, the location errors in horizontal and vertical GPS components are 1cm and 3cm, respectively. For seismic signals associated with eruptions at Sakurajima from November to. Upward migration of the explosion sources at Sakurajima volcano , Japan , revield by a seismic network in the close vocinity of the summit crater.
We have been developing a volcano observation system based on an unmanned aerial vehicle UAV for safe observations near active volcanic vents. We deployed an unmanned autonomous helicopter which can aviate autonomously along a previously programmed path within a meter accuracy using real-time kinematics differential GPS equipment. The maximum flight time, flight distance, and payload are 90 minutes, 5km, and 10kg, respectively.
Entering the area within 2 km from the active craters is prohibited, and thus there were no observation station in the summit area. From November 2nd to 12th, , and from November 2nd to 12th, , we conducted seismic station installation in Sakurajima summit area using UAV and successfully installed four seismic stations within 2km from the active craters. Since the installation of the seismic stations, we have succeeded in acquiring waveform data accompanying more than moderate eruptions at Showa-crater.
Except for the mechanical resonance contamination at 35Hz, the recorded waveforms are as good as that recorded at permanent stations in Sakurajima. Since the beginning of the observation in the vicinity of the summit crater, the normalized amplitudes of the signals accompanying eruptions at Showa crater had been almost steady. However, after early April , gradual increase of the normalized amplitude started, and this increasing trend is continuing at the time of the. Evaluation at Sakurajima Volcano , Japan.
Infrasound waveform inversion provides an exciting tool to accurately characterize emission volume and mass flux from both volcanic and non-volcanic explosions. From radioactive carbon dating techniques, it is known that a steam explosion in the Kami Mountains created the caldera approximately 3, years ago. For instance, the viscosity variation strongly depends on the water content in the case of Sakurajima sample while the viscosity fluctuates within a certain definite range of shear rate using Ontake sample. This work was conducted to examine the effect of volcanic ash on the chronic respiratory disease mortality in the vicinity of Mt. We have also developed earthquake observation modules and GPS receiver modules that are exclusively designed for UAV installation at summit areas of active volcanoes. Flow band developed dacite with 1. Member feedback about Pour Lui:
However, infrasound-based eruption flow rates and mass estimates have yet to be validated against independent measurements, and numerical modeling has only recently been applied to the inversion technique. Here we present a robust full-waveform acoustic inversion method, and use it to calculate eruption flow rates and masses from 49 explosions from Sakurajima Volcano , Japan.
Six infrasound stations deployed from February recorded the explosions. We compute numerical Green's functions using 3-D Finite Difference Time Domain modeling and a high-resolution digital elevation model.
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The inversion, assuming a simple acoustic monopole source, provides realistic eruption masses and excellent fit to the data for the majority of the explosions. The inversion results are compared to independent eruption masses derived from ground-based ash collection and volcanic gas measurements. Assuming realistic flow densities, our infrasound-derived eruption masses for ash-rich eruptions compare favorably to the ground-based estimates, with agreement ranging from within a factor of two to one order of magnitude.
Uncertainties in the time-dependent flow density and acoustic propagation likely contribute to the mismatch between the methods. Our results suggest that realistic and accurate infrasound-based eruption mass and mass flow rate estimates can be computed using the method employed here. If accurate volcanic flow parameters are known, application of. With more than 20 microbarometers in a distance range from as small as 4 km to km, we observed the strongest explosive eruption since of the Sakurajima volcano , located at the southern end of the Kyushu Island in Japan.
An MB at 4-km away from the summit recorded one strong sharp acoustic signal with peak-to-peak amplitude Pa and duration 4 sec. This nearby microbarogram guarantees that no small eruption occurred with amplitude more than a few tens Pa within a day after this explosive eruption. At the I30H IMS array which is km away from the volcano , we observed a dispersed pressure wave train with duration 1 min and maximum amplitude 5 Pa and dominant periods sec.
Array analysis shows a tropospheric propagating infrasound from the azimuth of Sakurajima with an apparent velocity 0. All distant stations are nearly linearly aligned from Sakurajima to the I30H array and their azimuths are deg. Within this small azimuth range, we observed a strong azimuthal anisotropy in traveltime and amplitude. The patterns of traveltime anomaly and amplitude are similar, earlier the arrival, larger the amplitude. This implies that these traveltime and amplitude anomalies are wave propagation origin and are likely caused by the wind, not by an asymmetric radiation pattern of the explosion source.
More microbarograms including two MBs were running in the Honshu Island during the eruption but these records show little infrasound signals with amplitude more than a few Pa. There seems a clear areal boundary where infrasound was observed or not. Another prominent feature of waveforms is the multiple later phases reflected from the troposphere and the thermosphere. The record section of microbarograms recorded at less than km from the volcano reveals nearly-equally time-separated later phases up to 5 bounces. The traveltime curves progressively increases the apparent velocity as the time increases and distance decreases, suggesting.
Infrasound array observation at Sakurajima volcano. Showa crater at the southeastern flank of the Sakurajima volcano has erupted since , accompanying intermittent Vulcanian eruptions with small scale ash emissions. We conducted an array observation in the last half of in order to locate infrasound source generated by the eruptions. The array located 3. Two peaks, around 2Hz and 0. They should be checked by experimental studies. The first 10 s infrasound signal was made by explosion directly and the following small amplitude infrasound tremors for about 2 min were mostly composed of diffraction and reflection waves from the topography around the volcano , mainly the wall of the Aira Caldera.
It shows propagation direction of infrasound tremor after the explosion signals should be carefully examined. Clear change in the height of the infrasound source was not identified while volcanic cloud grew up. Strong eddies of the growing volcanic cloud would not be main sources of such weak infrasound signals, thus, infrasound waves are emitted mainly from or through the vent itself. Increased mortality of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer, in the area with large amount of ashfall from Mount Sakurajima volcano.
Mount Sakurajima in Japan is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. This work was conducted to examine the effect of volcanic ash on the chronic respiratory disease mortality in the vicinity of Mt. The present work examined the standardized mortality ratios SMRs of respiratory diseases during the period in Sakurajima town and Tarumizu city, where ashfall from the volcano recorded more than Sakurajima , and therefore has much smaller amounts of ashfall. Further studies seem warranted.
High-definition and low-noise muography of the Sakurajima volcano with gaseous tracking detectors. Muography is a novel method to highly resolve the internal structure of active volcanoes by taking advantage of the cosmic muon's strong penetration power. In this paper, we present the first high-definition image in the vicinity of craters of an erupting volcano called Sakurajima , Kyushu, Japan. The muography observation system based on the technique of multi-wire proportional chamber mMOS has been operated reliably during the data taking period of days.
The mMOS measured precisely the flux of muons up to the thickness of 5, meter-water-equivalent. It was shown that high-definition density maps around the Craters A, B and Showa could be determined with a precision of less than 7. The observed density distribution suggests that the fall back deposits filled the magma pathway and increased their density underneath Craters A and B. Regular eruptions from Sakurajima volcano , Japan , repeatedly cover local urban areas with volcanic ash. The frequency of exposure of local populations to the ash led to substantial concerns about possible respiratory health hazards, resulting in many epidemiological and toxicological studies being carried out in the s.
However, very few mineralogical data were available for determination of whether the ash was sufficiently fine to present a respiratory hazard. In this study, we review the existing studies and carry out mineralogical, geochemical and toxicological analyses to address whether the ash from Sakurajima has the potential to cause respiratory health problems.
The results show that the amount of respirable volcano is highly variable in different eruptions 1.
The finest samples derive from historical, plinian eruptions but considerable amounts of respirable material were also produced from the most recent vulcanian eruptive phase since Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope imaging showed no fibrous particles similar to asbestos particles. Surface reactivity tests showed that the ash did not produce significant amounts of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals 0.
A basic toxicology assay to assess the ability of ash to rupture the membrane of red blood cells showed low propensity for haemolysis. The findings suggest that the potential health hazard of the ash is low, but exposure and respiratory conditions should still be monitored given the high frequency and durations of exposure. Statistical analysis of dispersal and deposition patterns of volcanic emissions from Mt.
However, there remain significant gaps in the understanding of the long-term behaviour of emissions from volcanoes with long periods of activity. Sakurajima Japan provides us with a rare opportunity to study such activity, due to its eruptive behaviour and dense observation network. In the 6-year period from to , the volcano was erupting at an almost constant rate introducing approximately kt of ash per month to the atmosphere.
The long-term characteristics of the transport and deposition of ash and SO2 in the area surrounding the volcano are studied here using daily surface observations of suspended particulate matter SPM and SO2 and monthly ashfall values. Results reveal different dispersal patterns for SO2 and volcanic ash, suggesting volcanic emissions' separation in the long-term.
Peak SO2 concentrations at different locations on the volcano vary up to 2 orders of magnitude and decrease steeply with distance. Airborne volcanic ash increases SPM concentrations uniformly across the area surrounding the volcano , with distance from the vent having a secondary effect. During the period studied here, the influence of volcanic emissions was identifiable both in SO2 and SPM concentrations which were, at times, over the recommended exposure limits defined by the Japanese government, European Union and the World Health Organisation.
Depositional patterns of volcanic ash exhibit elements of seasonality, consistent with previous studies. Climatological and topographic effects are suspected to impact the deposition of volcanic ash away from the vent: Distribution and mass of tephra-fall deposits from volcanic eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano based on posteruption surveys.
We estimate the total mass of ash fall deposits for individual eruptions of Sakurajima Volcano , southwest Japan based on distribution maps of the tephra fallout. Five ash-sampling campaigns were performed between and , during which time Sakurajima continued to emit ash from frequent Vulcanian explosions. During each survey, between 29 and 53 ash samplers were installed in a zone 2. Total masses of erupted tephra were estimated using several empirical methods based on the relationship between the area surrounded by a given isopleth and the thickness of ash fall within each isopleth.
We obtained , t 4. The minimum erupted mass of tephra produced during the recorded events was calculated as being t 5. This calculation was based on the total mass of tephra collected during any one eruptive period and the number of eruptions during that period. These values may thus also include the contribution of continuous weak ash emissions before and after prominent eruptions. We analyzed the meteorological effects on ash fall distribution patterns and concluded that the width of distribution area of an ash fall is strongly controlled by the near-ground wind speed.
The direction of the isopleth axis for larger masses is affected by the local wind direction at ground level. Furthermore, the wind direction influences the direction of the isopleth axes more at higher altitude. While a second maximum of ash fall can appear, the influence of rain might only affect the finer particles in distal areas. Rheological behavior of water-ash mixtures from Sakurajima and Ontake volcanoes: Lahars represent one of the most serious volcanic hazards, potentially causing severe damage to the surrounding environment, not only immediately after eruption but also later due to rainfall or snowfall.
The flow of a lahar is governed by volcanic topography and its rheological behavior, which is controlled by its volume, microscale properties, and the concentration of particles. However, the effects of particle properties on the rheology of lahars are poorly understood. In this study, viscosity measurements were performed on water-ash mixtures from Sakurajima and Ontake volcanoes.
Samples from Sakurajima show strong and simple shear thinning, whereas those from Ontake show viscosity fluctuations and a transition between shear thinning and shear thickening. Particle analysis of the volcanic ash together with a theoretical analysis suggests that the rheological difference between the two types of suspension can be explained by variations in particle size distribution and shape.
In particular, to induce the complex rheology of the Ontake samples, coexistence of two particle size groups may be required since two independent behaviors, one of which follows the streamline Stokes number St Unzen Volcano , Japan. This is a space radar image of the area around the Unzen volcano , on the west coast of Kyushu Island in southwestern Japan. Unzen, which appears in this image as a large triangular peak with a white flank near the center of the peninsula, has been continuously active since a series of powerful eruptions began in The image shows an area North is toward the upper left of the image.
The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: Unzen is one of 15 "Decade" volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations.
The city of Shimabara sits along the coast at the foot of Unzen on its east and northeast sides. At the summit of Unzen a dome of thick lava has been growing continuously since Collapses of the sides of this dome have generated deadly avalanches of hot gas and rock known as pyroclastic flows. Volcanologists can use radar image data to monitor the growth of lava domes, to better understand and predict potentially hazardous collapses. Unzen Volcano , Japan.
Unzen is one of 15 'Decade' volcanoes identified by the scientific community as posing significant potential threats to large local populations. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. L-band 24 cm , C-band 6 cm and X-band 3 cm. Rapid dike intrusion into Sakurajima volcano on August 15, , as detected by multi-parameter ground deformation observations.
We present observations of ground deformation at Sakurajima in August and model the deformation using a combination of GNSS, tilt and strain data in order to interpret a rapid deformation event on August 15, The pattern of horizontal displacement during the period from August 14 to 16, , shows a WNW-ESE extension, which suggests the opening of a dike. Using a genetic algorithm, we obtained the position, dip, strike length, width and opening of a dislocation source based on the combined data. The length and width are 2. Half of the total amount of deformation was concentrated between This is times larger than the magma intrusion rate prior to one of the biggest eruptions at the summit crater of Minami-dake on July 24, , and times larger than the average magma intrusion rate during the period from October to March The previous Mogi-type ground deformation is considered to be a process of magma accumulation in preexisting spherical reservoirs.
Conversely, the August event was a dike intrusion and occurred in a different location to the preexisting reservoirs. The direction of the opening of the dike coincides with the T-axes and direction of faults creating a graben structure. Unzipping of the volcano arc, Japan. A working hypothesis for the recent evolution of the southern Volcano Arc, Japan , is presented which calls upon a northward-progressing sundering of the arc in response to a northward-propagating back-arc basin extensional regime.
This model appears to explain several localized and recent changes in the tectonic and magrnatic evolution of the Volcano Arc. Most important among these changes is the unusual composition of Iwo Jima volcanic rocks. This contrasts with normal arc tholeiites typical of the rest of the Izu- Volcano -Mariana and other primitive arcs in having alkaline tendencies, high concentrations of light REE and other incompatible elements, and relatively high silica contents. In spite of such fractionated characteristics, these lavas appear to be very early manifestations of a new volcanic and tectonic cycle in the southern Volcano Arc.
These alkaline characteristics and indications of strong regional uplift are consistent with the recent development of an early stage of inter-arc basin rifting in the southern Volcano Arc. New bathymetric data are presented in support of this model which indicate: Such uplifted domes are the immediate precursors of rifts in other environments, and it appears that a similar situation may now exist in the southern Volcano Arc.
The present distribution of unrifted Volcano Arc to the north and rifted Mariana Arc to the south is interpreted not as a stable tectonic configuration but as representing a tectonic "snapshot" of an arc in the process of being rifted to form a back-arc basin. Paleointensity study of the historical andesitic lava flows: Correct determination of absolute paleointensities is essential to investigate past geomagnetic field.
There are two types of methods to obtain the paleointensities: Many paleomagnetists have so far regarded the former method as reliable. However, there are increasing evidences that it is sometimes not robust for basaltic lavas resulting in systematic high paleointensities e.
In the Japanese archipelago, there are not only basaltic lavas but also andesitic lavas. They are important candidates of the absolute paleointensity determination in Japan. Several rock magnetic experiments revealed that main magnetic carriers of the present samples are titanomagnetites with Curie temperatures of about C, and that high temperature oxidation progresses in the order of SW01, TS01 and TS They gave 64 and 60 successful determinations.
Considering the standard deviations, we can say that both paleointensity methods recovered correct geomagnetic field. Asymmetric deformation structure of lava spine in Unzen Volcano , Japan. Lava spine is commonly generated by effusive eruption of crystal-rich, dacitic-andesitic magmas. Especially, deformation rock on surface of lava spine has been related with processes of magma ascent, outgassing, and generation of volcanic earthquake e. To reveal the relationships and generation process of the spine, it is needed to understand a spatial distribution of the deformation rock.
Here we show the spatial distribution of the deformation rock of lava spine in the Unzen volcano , Japan , to discuss the generation process of the spine. The lava spine in Unzen volcano is elongated in the E-W direction, showing a crest like shape with long, 40 m wide and 50 m high.
The lava spine is divided into following four parts: Dense dacite with 30 m of maximum thickness, showing slickenside on the southern face; 2 Sheared dacite part: Flow band developed dacite with 1. Network of red colored vein develops in dacite with 0. Dacitic breccia with 10 m of maximum thickness. The Breccia part dominates in the northern part of the spine, and flops over Massive dacite part accross the Sheared dacite and Tuffisite parts. The slickenside on southern face of massive dacite demonstrates contact of solids. The slickenside breaks both of phenocryst and groundmass, demonstrating that the slickenside is formed after significant crystallization at the shallow conduit or on the ground surface.
The lineation of the slickenside shows E-W direction with almost horizontal rake angle, which is consistent with the movement of the spine to an east before emplacement. Development of sub-vertical striation due to extrusion was observed on northern face of the spine Hayashi, Therefore, we suggest that the spine just at extrusion consisted of Massive dacite, Sheared dacite, Tuffisite, Breccia, and Striation parts in the northern half of the spine. Temporal variations in volumetric magma eruption rates of Quaternary volcanoes in Japan. Long-term evaluations of hazard and risk related to volcanoes rely on extrapolations from volcano histories, including the uniformity of their eruption rates.
We calculated volumetric magma eruption rates, compiled from quantitative eruption histories of 29 Japanese Quaternary volcanoes , and analyzed them with respect to durations spanning years. Although large basaltic stratovolcanoes tend to have high eruption rates and relatively constant repose intervals, these cases are not representative of the various types of volcanoes in Japan. At many Japanese volcanoes , eruption rates are not constant through time, but increase, decrease, or fluctuate. Therefore, it is important to predict whether eruption rates will increase or decrease for long-term risk assessment.
Several temporal co-variations of eruption rate and magmatic evolution suggest that there are connections between them. In some cases, magma supply rates increased in response to changing magma-generation processes. On the other hand, stable plumbing systems without marked changes in magma composition show decreasing eruption rates through time. Describes the forces responsible for the eruptions of volcanoes and gives the physical and chemical parameters governing the type of eruption. Explains the structure of the earth in relation to volcanoes and explains the location of volcanic regions.
Oregon have the most active volcanoes , but other states and territories have active volcanoes , too. A volcanic eruption may involve lava and other debris that can flow up to mph, destroying everything in their One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, this booklet provides a non-technical introduction to the subject of volcanoes.
Separate sections examine the nature and workings of volcanoes , types of volcanoes , volcanic geological structures such as plugs and maars, types of eruptions, volcanic-related activity such as geysers…. Scoria cone formation through a violent Strombolian eruption: Irao Volcano , SW Japan. Scoria cones are common volcanic features and are thought to most commonly develop through the deposition of ballistics produced by gentle Strombolian eruptions and the outward sliding of talus. However, some historic scoria cones have been observed to form with phases of more energetic violent Strombolian eruptions e.
Geologic evidence shows that violent Strombolian eruptions during cone formation may be more common than is generally perceived, and therefore it is important to obtain additional insights about such eruptions to better assess volcanic hazards. The geologic features of this volcano are consistent with a violent Strombolian eruption, including voluminous ash and fine lapilli beds on order of km3 DRE with simultaneous scoria cone formation and lava effusion from the base of the cone. The characteristics of the volcanic products suggest that the rate of magma ascent decreased gradually throughout the eruption and that less explosive Strombolian eruptions increased in frequency during the later stages of activity.
During the eruption sequence, the chemical composition of the magma became more differentiated. A new K-Ar age determination for phlogopite crystallized within basalt dates the formation of Irao Volcano at 0. At some well-studied volcanoes , surface movements of at least several centimeters take place out to distances of about 10 km from the summit of the volcano.
Widespread deformation of this type is relatively easy to monitor, because the necessary survey stations can be placed at favorable sites some distance from the summit of the volcano. In contrast, surface movement at some other volcanoes , usually volcanoes with steep slopes, is restricted to places within about 1 km of their summits. Examples of this class of volcanoes include Mount St. Local movement on remote, rugged volcanoes of this type is difficult to observe using conventional methods of measuring ground movement, which generally require a clear line-of-sight between points of interest.
However, a revolutionary new technique, called the Global Positional System GPS , provides a very efficient, alternative method of making such measurements. GPS, which uses satellites and ground-based receivers to accurately record slight crustal movements, is rapidly becoming the method of choice to measure deformation at volcanoes. The eruption caused an unprecedented volcanic disaster in the last 70 years in Japan. Search and rescue operations started soon after the eruption until they were suspended due to snowfall in late October.
Considering the potential hazards of further explosive events and the severe winter condition, an approach to the summit area after late October was very difficult. To reveal the condition of the volcanic activity and foresee the trend, we considered it important to carry out volcanic gas surveys for the dense plumes in the vicinity of the vents using an unmanned aircraft system UAS.
For the surveys at Ontake volcano , the UAS was expected to fly about 8 km roundtrip distance at an altitude of over m. A multicopter with 8 rotors was adopted and we targeted four types of plume monitoring using the UAS; in-plume monitoring of multiple gas concentrations, SO2 flux measurement with UV spectroscopy, thermography of the vents, and in-plume particle sampling.
In order to meet the 1 kg payload of the multicopter, some of the instruments were slimmed down. Our surveys showed decreasing activity of the volcano , together with the advantages of using UAS in volcano monitoring for inaccessible conditions. Precursory changes in well water level prior to the March, eruption of Usu Volcano , Japan.
The height of water levels in two wells located near Usu volcano , Japan , changed in a systematic fashion for several months prior to the eruption of Usu volcano on 31 March In one well, water-level decrease relative to normal levels was first observed at the beginning of October The decreasing water-level is postulated to result from groundwater flow into cracks widened by intruding magma during dike formation. From the beginning of January , the rate of decrease became higher.
During this time, the water level of the second well increased by 0. The water-level changes are consistent with volumetric expansion of magma inside the magma chamber, followed by intrusion of magma into the fracture system associated with widening of cracks. We conclude that water-level observations can provide information that may potentially be used to predict further volcanic eruptions. Lithospheric Contributions to Arc Magmatism: Major chemical exchange between the crust and mantle occurs in subduction zone environments, profoundly affecting the chemical evolution of Earth.
The relative contributions of the subducting slab, mantle wedge, and arc lithosphere to the generation of island arc magmas, and ultimately new continental crust, are controversial. Isotopic data for lavas from a transect of volcanoes in a single arc segment of northern Honshu, Japan , have distinct variations coincident with changes in crustal lithology. These data imply that the relatively thin crustal lithosphere is an active geochemical filter for all traversing magmas and is responsible for significant modification of primary mantle melts.
The Hida Mountain Range located in central Japan has a lot of active volcanoes. Tateyama volcano is located in the northern part of the range. However, it is difficult to estimate the contribution of scattering loss and intrinsic absorption to total attenuation on the basis of this method. In the present study, we focused on the peak delay Takahashi et al. We found seismograms recorded after passing below the southern part of the Hida Mountain Range show longer peak delay than those recorded before passing below the region, while there are no clear difference in peak delay for pairs of seismograms before and after passing below Tateyama volcano.
It suggests that causes of the attenuation beneath Tateyama volcano and the southern part of the Hida Mountain Range are different. We used the peak delay values to evaluate the strength of intrinsic absorption. We assumed that the difference of whole peak delay between two seismograms for the same earthquake was caused by intrinsic absorption beneath the region between the two seismic stations. Wecalculated the change in amplitude and peak delay on the basis of a theory suggested by Azimi et al.
In case of the two envelopes are quite similar to each other, we conclude that intrinsic absorption is a major cause of total attenuation. Compressional forces at convergent margins govern a variety of processes, most prominently earthquakes, landslides and mud volcanoes in the forearc. Although all seem related to fluid pressure changes, mud volcanoes are not only characterized by expulsion of fluids, but also fluidized mud and clasts that got ripped-up during mud ascension. They hence provide information regarding mobilization depth, diagenetic overprint, and geodynamic pathways.
At the Nankai Trough subduction zone, SE offshore Japan , mud volcanism id common and supposed to be related to seismogenic processes. Cores revealed mud breccia with semi-consolidated silt- to claystone clasts and gaseous fluid escape structures, while the hemipelagic background sediments are characterized by intercalations of turbidites, ash layers and calcareous fossils. Clasts were subject to thin-section analyses, and the cores were sampled for XRD analyses and radiocarbon dating.
Illite crystallinity based on XRD measurements varies between 0. Radiocarbon dating revealed ages between and yr cal. BP, with age reversals occurring not earlier than yr cal. Radiocarbon dating beneath turbidites and ash layers found at mud volcano 9 points to an episodic occurrence of these earthquake-related features in intervals of ca.