Desde el portal: Artículos de Pensamiento Alternativo (Spanish Edition)


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Does the Commission believe that the promotion of alcohol consumption in selected EU and North American countries is an appropriate form of development aid? Does the Commission believe that the product, the marketing of which is supported in this manner, is an appropriate and stable source of revenue in those countries for which this development aid is intended? To accompany the Caribbean rum sector in enhancing competitiveness to maintain profitability under these changing circumstances, the European Union funded a rum programme facilitating the transition from bulk rum exports to branded products.

The programme did not encourage rum consumption in EU and North American countries, but targeted plant efficiency, compliance with environmental and waste management regulations, standards, distribution and marketing. The programme was successfully concluded in The programme had various positive side-effects, such as showing the potential of economies of scale in the Caribbean, thereby generating positive businesses pressure for regional integration in a time where the Caribbean integration process is stagnating and being questioned from many corners.

The contract in question, aimed at marketing Caribbean rum in the European and North American markets, is financed under a second phase of the rum programme. The advantage of exporting branded rum products over bulk rum is that a greater part of the value added remains in the Caribbean thus promoting economic growth and contributing to sustainable economic development.

In accordance with action taken to date, it seems that the Member States are aiming for fiscal consolidation without also taking into account, in many cases, the measures required in order to maintain social cohesion and adequacy, while there are increasingly large-scale and vehement protests by citizens against strict unilateral austerity plans.

This is hindering the smooth functioning of commercial activity with negative consequences for the real economy and the areas where this takes place. What are the relevant findings or conclusions on European public opinion according to the most recent opinion polls? Given the particular role of journalists in investigating and reporting facts, in many instances, there have been accusations of ill-treatment of representatives of the press, purely because of their position.

In which Member States have such claims been made? Is there a link, in terms of time, with the start of the crisis? The European Union is perceived as part of the solution to the crisis. Freedom of expression and media pluralism are essential foundations of democracy, enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Respect for media pluralism, protection of journalists' sources, freedom to criticise private and public powers, independent media and independent regulatory bodies are essential for the full exercise of freedom of expression. It has recently been announced that the French authorities have withdrawn customs facilities at about 40 small airfields, and intend to announce further closures in the coming months.

This adversely affects UK private pilots. Since the UK is not part of the Schengen agreement, it will now be impossible to fly into a French airport. Until this announcement, pilots flying to continental Europe have been using a simple exchange of customs forms known as the General Aviation Report GAR. For outbound flights from the UK these reports must be sent in advance to airfields where customs facilities exist. The process is less restrictive for those coming into the UK.

What can be done to ensure the continued free movement of persons in this way? In order to operate flights which are not exclusively to or from the territories of the Member States applying the Schengen acquis, airports of the Member States have to be notified by the respective Member State as border crossing points. At international airports, appropriate staff and infrastructure must be deployed to ensure that all persons crossing the border are effectively checked in accordance with the Schengen Borders Code.

Under these rules, border guards do not need to be present at all times provided that the necessary personnel can be deployed in good time to carry out border checks. It is up to Member States to decide on the number and localisation of their border crossing points including the choice of airports to be listed as authorised border crossing points. Queste ultime possono essere avviate o da uno Stato membro sul cui territorio si intenda realizzare il progetto o da uno Stato membro su cui il progetto potrebbe avere ripercussioni significative.

Si ritiene infatti che questo tipo di progetti abbia ripercussioni fortemente negative a livello transfrontaliero. However, a part of the route is not only very close to but actually touches a bordering area in Italy with its construction sites and changes to the land. The area is Val Rosandra, an environment which is home to Alpine and Mediterranean plants as well as several animal species that are extremely rare outside the valley.

The public disclosure phase must be completed by the end of the month and will involve the municipalities of Hrpelje, Kozina, Sezana, Koper and, of course, Divaca, where the station will be extended. The results must be sent to the Ministry of Infrastructure and Spatial Planning and to the Management of Slovenian Railways, but information does not appear to have been sent to the Italian authorities. In fact, Slovenia has not forwarded either a copy of the draft plan or an environmental report to Italy. These can be initiated either by a Member State in whose territory the project is intended to be carried out or by a Member State likely to be significantly affected.

It covers projects, including lines for long-distance railway traffic, which are considered to have a significant adverse transboundary impact. In view of the above, Italy is entitled to request Slovenia that it wishes to participate in the environmental decision-making under the EIA Directive and Espoo Convention.

It is a stopover habitat for birds migrating between Africa and Europe. Is the Commission aware of any environmental impact studies that have been carried out for this project, which the Balearic Islands Government has declared to be of interest to the autonomous region? The Commission is not aware of the urban development plans of the Balearic Islands Government mentioned by the Honourable Member. The Commission does not possess information on the project mentioned by the Honourable Member and therefore it is not possible to identify, at this stage, any breach of the abovementioned Directives.

These are, therefore, provisions that bring about significant changes for the benefit of consumers in the field of private insurance, on the one hand imposing obligations on insurance companies to define clear terms, brief their clients properly and provide them with all necessary information before contracts are signed, on the other hand tackling problems that afflict thousands of insurance clients, such as opt-out rights and adjustments to insurance premiums.

Given that insurance products are often so complex that it is very often quite difficult for consumers to understand and evaluate them, with the result that they are not in a position to make the right decisions on their insurance cover, can the Commission answer the following:. What is its assessment of the Greek private insurance market in comparison with the situation in that market in other Member States?

Does the Commission intend to conduct a detailed check on conditions in the market in question in Member States so as to identify irregularities and omissions that are detrimental to consumers? How does it view the fact that a provision so important for the smooth functioning of the insurance market should be withdrawn at a time when Greek consumers need to be protected more than ever by the relevant institutions? Given that insurance companies often avoid signing insurance contracts with disabled people because they have been diagnosed as disabled, does equal access to private insurance for disabled people actually exist in the Greek market?

What is the situation in other Member States? The Commission is not aware of the legislative changes referred to by the Honourable Member. The Commission does not have data on the basis of which it would be in a position to comment on the private insurance market in Greece. However, the Commission is working on reinforcing consumer protection in the area of insurance in all Member States as part of its Consumer Retail Package.

EU equal treatment legislation currently does not cover the access of people with disabilities to private insurance. This proposal is still under discussion in Council and does not apply yet. Once adopted the directive would, however, still allow proportionate differences in treatment on the grounds of disability, if the disability is a determining factor in the risk assessment which must be based on actuarial principles and reliable data. Greece is one of the Member States without restrictions.

Is the Commission aware that school bus services subsidised by the Irish State are not in fact put out to tender? Could the Commission comment on this matter? Could the Commission outline fully what conditions need to be met in order to exempt a country from putting its school transport services out to tender?

In view of the fact that school bus services in Ireland have never been subject to competition and have always been run by the national semi-State operator, which sometimes subcontracts particular routes out to smaller companies, does the Commission feel that Ireland is respecting EU competition rules? Is the Commission aware of the extent of the subsidy being provided by the Irish Government to fund the school bus service in Ireland?

What is the position in other countries with regard to the provision of school bus services? Do tenders exist for the operation of such services in other Member States? This final decision will address the compatibility of school transport in Ireland in relation to state aid competition rules. It is not possible for the Commission to comment further on specific competition aspects of school transport in Ireland, since the investigation is ongoing. In general, when public authorities award contracts for school transport services, in addition to respecting state aid competition rules, the authorities also need to respect various EU rules on public procurement.

With regard to the provision of school bus services in other Member States, the Commission does not have complete information, but observes that in many Member States such services are organised by public authorities on a regional or local level, rather than coordinated nationally as is the case in Ireland. There is continuing discrimination in Turkey against Greek Orthodox citizens wishing to purchase property on Imbros and Tenedos, as can be seen from the publication of the decision by the Turkish Council of State to annul a transfer by the Imbros land registry of a property title on Imbros to a Turkish citizen of Christian Orthodox religion.

The rationale behind the decision, as indicated by the Taraf newspaper, which reported the ruling in question, has to do with the fact that population movements and changes in property ownership on Imbros and Tenedos, islands which exert a decisive influence on the security of the Dardanelles Strait and Istanbul, are an important national security factor. According to the decision by the Turkish Council of State, Imbros and Tenedos have been declared limited-access military and security areas and foreign individuals are prohibited from buying or renting property there.

Nevertheless, no interpretation is provided on the subject of this equating of Turkish citizens with foreigners. A lawyer acting on behalf of many ethnic Greeks who have attempted to purchase property on the island of Imbros has complained about continuing discrimination against Christian Orthodox citizens in Turkey. The newspaper Taraf has drawn attention to a decision by the Turkish Council of State invalidating an act issued by the Imbros Land Registry transferring a land title on Imbros to a Christian Orthodox Turkish citizen.

In response to judicial pressure from the lawyer of the parties concerned, the Turkish supreme court has justified its decision as follows: Bearing in mind that the Turkish government has not yet commented on the matter, could the Commission state its official position? The Commission is aware of the issue raised by the Honourable Members and follows it closely with the Turkish authorities. These rights and freedoms need to be guaranteed according to the European Convention of Human Rights and the case law of the European Court of Human Rights.

Is it in favour of the proposal for the creation of a new international development bank, which has been supported by Robert Zoellick, the outgoing President of the World Bank, among others?

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EU Member States are aware of their responsibility in successfully implementing the IMF Quota and Governance reform and are working on implementing it in full by the agreed deadline of the Annual Meetings. Member States are also working to implement the commitment for greater representation for emerging market and developing countries at the IMF Executive Board through a reduction of the representation of advanced European countries at the Board by two seats.

The Member States also intend to play a constructive role in forthcoming discussions on the review of the current IMF quota formula. It will be important to ensure that the review process is fully anchored within the IMF bodies, including the International Monetary and Financial Committee, with a view to engage the entire IMF membership.

Quotas should continue to reflect the relative positions of the Fund's members in the world economy and members' capacity to support the Fund's work, and the mandate of the Fund. As regards the second question, the Commission is looking forward to receiving more information on what is exactly proposed in terms of the purpose, structure and governance of a new international development bank. The policies of harsh austerity that have been implemented in Greece as well as in many other European Union countries for approximately the last two years have contributed to a significant deterioration in living standards for a large proportion of European citizens, with disturbing rates of unemployment and poverty being recorded throughout the European Union.

At this particularly critical social and economic time, young people are one of the age groups that seem to be hit very hard by the consequences of the crisis and the policies to tackle it, as demonstrated by a recent Unicef report on the situation of children in Greece in In this connection, can the Commission answer the following:. What is the child poverty rate in the Member States and in the European Union as a whole? How has this rate been affected during the crisis period? Is there a connection between cuts in social expenditure — particularly family allowances — and child poverty?

Given the highly unusual social conditions that are arising in the context of dealing with fiscal imbalances, how is this situation affecting the mental and physical health of children? What initiatives is the Commission preparing to take to help combat child poverty? Does it intend to provide additional assistance to Member States that are not making the expected progress on this front or that have a disturbingly high rate of child poverty?

It is difficult to judge how this rate has been affected during the crisis period as the rate was However, the Commission has evidence that depth of poverty and material deprivation of children have increased in a number of countries. In spite of cuts in social expenditure, most Member States have tried to spare allowances for the most vulnerable children, with universal allowances being cut and replaced by targeted measures for the most needy.

There is no statistical evidence yet to make a connection between these recent policy changes and child poverty outcomes. There is no systematic statistical evidence yet on the impact of budget austerity measures in the Member States on the health of children. There can be no doubt that the protracted recession and the consequent fiscal austerity programmes in Member States have produced a particularly unfavourable environment for our younger fellow citizens.

The deterioration in significant social and educational indicators is undermining both the present and the future of the population group in question and has a multiplier effect in perpetuating and increasing poverty, social exclusion and even delinquency. What fluctuations have been noted in the educational performance e. Are any data available on rises or falls in juvenile delinquency rates in EU Member States over the last two years?

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What is the employment rate for young people in Greece and the other EU Member States and how far-reaching have the effects of the significant socioeconomic shifts of the last two years been? Have statistical studies been carried out on the percentage of young people in Member States who are working without insurance cover? There are no statistics at EU level on the number of drop-outs i. The rate was The employment rate for young people aged was The corresponding EU average in was In that year Greece had the lowest employment rate of olds in the European Union.

The employment rates for young people in Greece had gone down by 7. The Commission has not carried out any studies on young persons working without insurance cover. What are the provisions ensuring the transparent and non-discriminatory character of airport charges that Greece has not incorporated, the implementation of which would lead to lower charges for passengers? Has Greece responded within the deadline to the reasoned opinion?

However, the remaining provisions of the directive, which set out common principles for the calculation and application of airport charges, have not been transposed. Such issues would include those related to non-discrimination, transparency, consultation of airport users, remedy procedures between the airport managing body and airport users as well as differentiation of airport services. The Greek authorities are required to reply within two months of receipt of the reasoned opinion.

At the time of writing, no such response had been received. This decision will pose new dangers for the people of Somalia, who are already suffering from aerial attacks by the United States and the military action of Kenya and Ethiopia. The inter-imperialist conflicts over energy routes and wealth-generating resources in the Horn of Africa have already plunged the peoples of the region into war and poverty. By what right are the ships of Operation Atalanta enabled to bombard ships and targets in the territory of Somalia, in effect declaring war, with incalculable consequences for the population, and thoroughly ruining the infrastructure that is vital for the country?

Every year the Council adopts the fishing opportunities based on a proposal submitted by the Commission, taking into account the scientific, technical and economic advice, when available. It should be noted that the available scientific data for these stocks were accessible to all concerned parties. The real fishing opportunities did not increase.

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The Honourable Member is invited to put his questions on monitoring and availability of scientific advice to the Commission, as they fall within its remit. Nationalisation Austria and bailout Germany — Bayerische Landesbank covered up the huge money laundering scheme.

HAAB grew with politicians from Austria and the Balkan region siphoning money during the UN arms embargo and ensuing corrupt privatisations. It follows from the directive that if a a covered entity, such as a bank, suspects that funds are the proceeds of a criminal activity, it is required to report these suspicions to a Financial Intelligence Unit, which will further investigate the case and if necessary transfer it to the national law enforcement authorities.

The Commission has no competence to investigate schemes such as those described by the Honourable Member. This is the responsibility of the relevant national authorities and, ultimately, of national Courts. In recent years, many European citizens have been caught out by the European City Guide scam. It now appears that a similar scam has been set up, trading under the name of the European Medical Directory and operated by NovaChannel. Its tactics are the same: NovaChannel was previously a Swiss-registered company, and its practices were being investigated by the Swiss Office of Fair Trading.

However, it has now ceased trading from Switzerland and payment is now being pursued by United Lda, a Portuguese company. Can the Commission confirm whether it is aware of this scam, and clarify what steps it is taking to halt the activities of these fraudsters? The Commission is aware of a number of misleading directory companies operating in Europe and decided to address this issue in the context of a communication, scheduled to be published in the first half of It will focus on the problems which European businesses face when confronted with misleading practices and present concrete proposals to address them, both at national and cross-border level.

An important part of this consultation was dedicated to the practices of misleading directory companies. While the need for future legislative action is currently evaluated, the Commission will promote better enforcement by coordinating the enforcement activities of the Member States.

In this context, meetings with the Member States' authorities will be organised in the course of to coordinate actions in cross-border cases of business-to-business misleading schemes and to exchange information with the view to improve enforcement. Landbouworganisaties klagen echter dat de aanvallen op boerderijen niet ernstig genoeg worden genomen door de politiediensten en de regering. Heeft de hoge vertegenwoordiger voor het buitenlands beleid de regering van Zuid-Afrika hierover al aangesproken, en aangedrongen op maatregelen die de veiligheid bevorderen?

Has the High Representative for Foreign Affairs already approached the South African Government about this issue and urged it to take measures to promote security? If so, what were the conclusions? If not, is she considering contacting the South African Government to discuss this pressing issue? Has the Commission formally requested, or does it intend to request, that the Turkish authorities put an end to illegal and unjustified practices against the Kurds?

Does the Commission have up-to-date information on the plight of Kurdish political prisoners and is it monitoring this information? Respect for human rights is a core requirement of the enlargement process, to which the Commission attaches the highest importance. The Commission continuously monitors the human rights situation in Turkey.

It features prominently in the annual Progress Reports. The Commission also underlined that terrorism-related articles of Turkish legislation and the wide definition of terrorism under the Anti-Terror Law remain a cause for serious concern. The Commission systematically raises specific cases of violations of human rights with the Turkish authorities. The Commission has repeatedly stressed that a balanced and fair solution to the Kurdish issue needs to be found and encouraged all parties to make all efforts to bring peace and prosperity for all the citizens of Turkey. The south-east of Turkey needs peace, democracy and stability as well as social, economic and cultural development.

This approach requires the participation and inclusion of all democratic forces, and not their exclusion. The Commission expects a new civilian Constitution to provide a basis for further progress. What specific and concrete actions, aside from the aforementioned statement, has the Commission been taking to address this issue? Furthermore, should Argentina continue along the path to protectionism, is the Commission considering further, more punitive, actions such as proposals to remove preferences for Argentina under the current GSP scheme?

The Commission is aware of the restrictive trade policy and practices of Argentina and takes very seriously the problems experienced on a systematic and regular basis by EU exporters to Argentina. The Commission is determined to tackle these problems at all levels and by all possible avenues, including World Trade Organisation WTO dispute settlement if necessary. The Commission has also engaged in alliance building with other WTO members to build common ground to pursue these matters in an effective manner and is seeking collaboration from industry to obtain a range of substantial evidence.

While further action is not excluded, it should be noted that Argentina will not be covered under the proposed revision of the Generalised System of Preferences GSP scheme. Wie wordt daar voor uitgenodigd? Wie zal namens de Europese Unie deelnemen? Wie draagt de kosten?

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Op hoeveel worden deze kosten begroot? Weke standpunten zullen worden ingenomen namens de Europese Unie? Wordt het principe van de vrije meningsuiting verdedigd? De resolutie legt meer de nadruk op praktische manieren om religieuze intolerantie te bestrijden. If so, when and where is this conference supposed to be held? Who is being invited to attend? Who will represent the European Union at the conference? Who will bear the costs? What are the estimated costs? What positions are to be adopted on behalf of the European Union?

Is the principle of freedom of expression going to be defended? The resolution rather focuses on practical ways to fight religious intolerance. The Istanbul process provides for expert meetings to exchange best practices in fostering religious tolerance and ensuring freedom of religion or belief. This expert seminar was attended by around 30 countries from all regions, including several EU Member States.

It is indeed expected that an EU Member State will convene another expert meeting in the second half of , though this remains to be confirmed. Sinds het in voege treden van het Verdrag van Lissabon maakt het handelsbeleid deel uit van het buitenlands beleid. Het lag dus voor de hand dat het aspect democratie en mensenrechten aan bod zou komen, maar dat blijkt niet het geval te zijn.

Gaat de hoge vertegenwoordiger ermee akkoord dat dit aspect geen deel uit van de onderhandelingen over het afsluiten van een vrijhandelsakkoord met Vietnam? Zitten de hoge vertegenwoordiger van de Unie voor buitenlandse zaken en veiligheidsbeleid en de Commissie op dezelfde lijn?

De Europese Unie EU hecht veel belang aan het bevorderen van het respect voor mensenrechten en fundamentele vrijheden, ook in Vietnam. Ook de liberalisering van de handel zal een positieve bijdrage leveren aan de mensenrechten. De openstelling van markten stimuleert groei en bevordert ontwikkeling, en draagt op die manier bij tot de verwezenlijking van fundamentele mensenrechten zoals sociale en economische rechten.

De vrijhandelsovereenkomsten bevatten bepalingen inzake duurzame ontwikkeling die erop gericht zijn de naleving van internationale arbeidsnormen te bevorderen. It is already clear that the situation regarding democracy and human rights in Vietnam, still a Communist one-party state, will not be among the topics discussed at the negotiations. Since the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force, trade policy has been part of foreign policy. It therefore seemed obvious that the issue of democracy and human rights would be raised, but that does not appear to be the case.

Does the High Representative accept that this issue should not be discussed at the negotiations on a free trade agreement with Vietnam? How can all this be reconciled with EU targets that the Union should strengthen and support democracy, the rule of law, human rights and the principles of international law abroad?

The EU is committed to promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in Vietnam as elsewhere. The Commission and the European External Action Service EEAS are working closely to fullfill this aim and have a well-coordinated view on how this can best be achieved. Trade liberalisation also makes a positive contribution to human rights. The opening of markets stimulates growth and helps spur development, thereby contributing to the implementation of fundamental human rights such as social and economic rights.

FTAs include provisions on sustainable development which notably aim to promote compliance with international labour standards. Waarom maakt dat aspect geen deel uit van de onderhandelingen over het afsluiten van een vrijhandelsakkoord met Vietnam? Bestaat hierover overeenstemming binnen de Commissie zelf? Bovendien zal ook de liberalisering van de handel een positieve bijdrage leveren aan de mensenrechten. De vrijhandelsovereenkomsten bevatten bepalingen inzake duurzame ontwikkeling die erop gericht zijn de partijen in een samenwerkingsproces te betrekken en de naleving van internationale arbeidsnormen in de betreffende landen te bevorderen.

Why will this issue not be discussed at the negotiations on a free trade agreement with Vietnam? Is there agreement on this issue inside the Commission itself? The European Union EU is committed to promoting respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, in Vietnam as elsewhere. The Commission and the High Representative are working closely to fullfill this aim and have a well coordinated view on how this can best be achieved. Such clauses will enhance EU leverage and will allow it to intensify dialogue and cooperation aimed at promoting human rights in Vietnam.

Furthermore, trade liberalisation also has a positive contribution to make to human rights. The opening of markets creates efficiency, stimulates growth and helps spur development, thereby contributing to the implementation of fundamental human rights such as social and economic rights. FTAs include provisions on sustainable development which aim to engage the Parties in a cooperative process and support compliance of international labour standard commitments in domestic implementation.

Last but not least, the Honourable Member can be assured that EU human rights concerns will continue to be raised at the highest level by President Van Rompuy and the President of the Commission, as well as by the Commissioner responsible for Trade. The Commission underlines the need for a number of concrete actions to ensure that people with disabilities have unrestricted access to new electronic content. What measures has the Commission taken to encourage the Member States to provide new devices for disabled people which give them access to the Internet and online services?

Does the Commission intend to prompt the Member States to put in place faster and more efficient measures at a national level? It shows that in in Austria It can be noted that in Austria, some legal instruments are in place. The proposal for an EU legislative intervention on web-accessibility is intended to be submitted for adoption to the college within the next weeks.

It targets the internal market for the creation of accessible public websites, starting with essential public services. The currently proposed revision of the Public Procurement Directive will also strengthen the accessibility provision. Five years have passed since the sinking of the Sea Diamond in the Santorini caldera.

However, it urged interested parties to keep it informed of any new data that might emerge. Does the Commission consider the actions taken by the Greek authorities to be adequate? The Commission estimates that at the time of sinking the Greek authorities took the necessary actions to pump out the fuel carried on board of the ship so as to avoid damage to the marine environment. Five years on, there is no conclusive evidence that at present the shipwreck constitutes a threat to the marine environment.

The Wreck Removal Convention provides a sound legal basis for coastal States to remove, or have removed, from their coastlines, wrecks which pose a hazard to the safety of navigation or to the marine and coastal environments, or both. The Commission would like to stress that there is only one option: The Commission will continue calling on all stakeholders to act in this sense. There are, however, no EU rules which prohibit such practice. Tour operators and providers of accommodation, such as bed and breakfasts, motels and hotels, are in general free to determine the price of their services.

The prices set for these services are most likely a result of many factors, such as the expected costs and income related to the booking.

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The market is, however, responding to the increasing demand of tourist services by single persons. Many tour operators and hotels regularly offer package deals or accommodation without any supplementary charges on solo travellers. Some companies also specialise in holidays for single persons. On this background, and as long as providers of accommodation and tour operators provide clear information to their customers regarding the prices of their services, the Commission does not see any need to intervene against the abovementioned pricing policies.

An increased diesel price at the pump, due to higher taxes compared to those on petrol, is likely to cause a significant reduction in the diesel share in new car fleets, especially in the small and medium-sized business sector, increasing CO 2 emissions and thus compromising EU environmental objectives in this area. By basing taxation on objective criteria — CO 2 emissions and energy content — it would ensure that taxation is brought more closely in line with the EU's energy and climate change objectives, including the CO 2 from cars strategy, and that it gives price signals that complement rather than contradict them.

Moreover, a transitional period allowing for a gradual alignment of petrol and diesel taxation would give car manufacturers sufficient time to invest in improving the efficiency potential of petrol and diesel cars or motor vehicles running on alternative fuels and thus stay on course for the implementation of the CO 2 from cars strategy.

The revised Directive would provide security for business and allow it to plan its technological investments and choose its preferred energy source without having to fear arbitrary changes in the structure of energy taxation. Even though, according to the Commission proposal, the principle of equivalence would apply to all energy products and require the use of single tax rates for the same fuel use — one for the general energy consumption taxation and one for the taxation of CO 2 emissions — Member States would still retain a large degree of flexibility.

They could set these two tax rates above the minima as they see fit according to their needs, budgetary and, in terms of the level of ambition regarding their national climate change objectives. In addition, the principle of equivalence for the rate on energy content for motor fuels would only come into force in which should provide sufficient time for economic operators and citizens to adapt. Extending this requirement in order to limit the possibility for Member States to set lower tax rates for commercial diesel does not lead to any environmental or efficiency benefit, as there is no real alternative to diesel technology on heavy-duty long-distance road transport.

The Commission is of the view that the possibility for Member States to apply a lower level of taxation to commercial rather than to non-commercial use of gas oil as propellant is no longer compatible with the requirement to improve energy efficiency and the need to address the growing environmental impact of transport. Road transport is one of the few sectors where emissions have risen rapidly: It is inevitable that full internalisation of external costs eventually has to be achieved for commercial road transport, since this is an important and growing source of emissions and there is no environmental reason to tax it lower than private use.

It should also be noted that the proposal provides for a transitional period until to reach the new EU minimum levels of taxation and until for the application of the principle of equal taxation of all motor fuels, which leaves ample time for the transport sector to adapt. The European automotive industry is the world leader in advanced diesel technology, and has been promoting the use of this technology in other markets for years.

The reduction of the European diesel market share that is to be expected following the introduction of the proposal for a Council Directive COM could send the wrong message to the other major markets. Our new search experience requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please enable JavaScript on your browser , then try again. Save pavon to get e-mail alerts and updates on your eBay Feed. Unfollow pavon to stop getting updates on your eBay Feed. You'll receive email and Feed alerts when new items arrive. Turn off email alerts. Skip to main content. Refine your search for pavon. Producir conocimiento es tener un pensamiento militante Fernandes de Oliveira L.

La Racionalidad como Ideal. Cicloturismo en Costa Rica: Ser poeta y mujer: La fogata del forastero Segura Ceciliano E.

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