The results of the data analysis will be made more understandable and easily explicable applying data visualisation techniques. Apart from the quantitative data analysis, data visualization is of extreme importance, in order to: An important issue is the communicating the visual information about the relationships among different ceramic classes in the same location, the relationships between the location of the finding and the productive centre, and the relationships with pottery found in different locations.
A web-based visualisation tools will be built following the principles of data visualization, pionereed by Bertin , 83 , and developed for instance in Tufte ; Few ; Munzner Following these guidelines, we will classify the different data into types categorial, ordinal, interval, ratio types , and will determine which visual attributes shape, orientation, colors, texture, size, position, length, area, volume represent data types most effectively, so giving rise to the visualization, according to the basic principle of assigning most efficient attributes, such as position, length, slope, to the more quantitative data types, and less efficient attributes, like area, volume, or colors to ordinal or categorical types.
The process of building the visualisation will be made interactive, letting the user associating the different variables with the different attributes, at the same time explaining the principles above. Moreover, the different relations within pottery production, trade flows, and social interactions, will be visualised applying the same principles, with graphs. The possibilities of such system open to research actors, institutions and general public would be a dramatic change in the archaeological discipline as it is nowadays.
Its impact on the field would dramatically change the profile of the professionals involved and will generate new markets. Bahga, Arshdeep and Madisetti, Vija Internet of Things a Hands-On Approach. Esripress Boyd, Danah and Crawford, Kate Spatial Science, quantitative revolutions and the culture of numbers.
Archaeology and the Big Data challenge. Visualization Analysis and design. Science as an Open Enterprise. Bulletin of the History of Archaeology 24 Lo studio delle bibliografie permette di applicare metodologie di distant reading per osservare somiglianze e differenze relative ai contributi presentati alle conferenze in oggetto.
Idee e opinioni vengono legittimate e consolidate e metodologie di ricerca diverse si confrontano e si integrano su tematiche comuni. La rivoluzione tecnologica e la diffusione del mezzo digitale sono state le due condizioni fondamentali per la realizzazione di questo concetto e la formalizzazione del movimento Open Access OA. La misura delle risorse citate dagli autori consente di valutare eventuali trasformazioni rispetto alla citazione tradizionale.
Sono stati esaminati riferimenti bibliografici estratti da articoli. In CLiC-it, invece, queste tre macrocategorie mostrano variazioni minori nelle due annate di vita della conferenza. La tabella 2 mostra la distribuzione annuale delle altre categorie documentarie in entrambe le conferenze. Si rileva tuttavia qualche differenza nelle percentuali di utilizzo. Il latino e lo spagnolo, sebbene scarsamente 3 Per visualizzare correttamente alcuni risultati in questa tabella sono state utilizzate due cifre decimali.
AIUCD pre '50 '50 '60 '70 '80 '90 in stampa nd n. CLiC-it pre'50 '50 '60 '70 '80 '90 in stampa nd n. Le notizie riferibili agli anni precedenti il sono circoscrivibili al periodo In CLiC-it i riferimenti bibliografici in corso di stampa costituiscono solo lo 0. Le fonti riferiscono manoscritti, lettere e testi per cui confluiscono quasi interamente nella macrocategoria libri. La tecnologia fornisce i mezzi necessari al raggiungimento di obiettivi importanti e complessi. In molti casi le Associazioni hanno facilitato il lavoro di etichettatura.
Allo scopo sono stati elaborati 24 raggruppamenti tematici: Computational Linguistics - CL 3. Computer Science - CS 4. Corpus Annotation - CA 5. Digital Archives - DA 6. Digital Libraries - DL 8. Digital Philology - DP 9. Information Retrieval - IR Latino - LAT Linguistics - LIN Machine Learning - ML Machine Translation — MT Ontology - ONT Psycholinguistics - PSY Scholarly Editing - SE Semantic Web - SW Treebanks Parsing - TP La tabella 6 presenta la distribuzione degli argomenti citati dalle due conferenze.
Le Associazioni di computer science coinvolte nelle citazioni CLiC-it e AIUCD forniscono una misura degli spazi in comune nella creazione di piattaforme e infrastrutture per archivi digitali di varia natura. Testi significativi di storia e filosofia emergono dalle bibliografie, non mancano riferimenti a opere generali come dizionari e enciclopedie.
In questa classificazione abbiamo inserito tutte le citazioni di digital heritage e quelle di digital humanities. Alcune associazioni sono in comune ai due corpora citazionali. Il grafico 2 mostra le frequenze relative dei documenti ad accesso aperto nei riferimenti bibliografici delle singole annate. Nelle due annate comparabili si registra una crescita a dimostrazione che gli autori di ambedue le conferenze hanno incrementato le citazioni a ocumenti ad accesso aperto.
Tuttavia, soprattutto in AIUCD, cominciano ad emergere citazioni a journal nativi online e disponibili soltanto in versione elettronica. Nelle bibliografie di entrambe le conferenze sono presenti anche citazioni a versioni digitali di alcuni libri o contributi a libri ma sono ancora abbastanza esigue, soprattutto in CLiC-it 0. Si tratta molto spesso di tipologie quali reports documentazione tecnica, linee guida, tesi… riscontrabili nelle citazioni delle due conferenze.
Pur prestando forte attenzione ad oggetti digitali, la peculiare componente filologica di AIUCD richiede che buona parte degli autori debba necessariamente citare libri manoscritti e testi a stampa , mentre la maggiore componente tecnologica di CLiC-it spinge gran parte dei suoi autori verso articoli pubblicati in atti di congresso. Dorr, Bryan Gibson, Mark T. Radev, and Yee Fan Tan. Budapest Open Access Initiative.
Ultimo accesso 4 gennaio Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing. Cassella, Maria, and Oriana Bozzarelli. Open Access e comunicazione scientifica: What's the Future for Computational Linguistics? Dale, Robert, and Adam Kilgarriff. Bibliometrics and Citation Analysis: Information Services and Use Lee Giles, and Kurt Bollacker.
In Atti del 1. Convegno Nazionale sulla Letteratura Grigia, a cura di V. International Journal on Grey Literature 6: Metitieri, Fabio, e Riccardo Ridi. In Biblioteche in rete: A Companion to Digital Humanities. What about the Linguistics? La citazione bibliografica nei percorsi di ricerca. Dalla galassia Gutenberg alla rivoluzione digitale. Communications of the ACM Its importance is due to two factors: Second, it focuses on topics that are crucial for super-diverse societies Becci, Burchardt and Giorda, , such as gender, spirituality, and ethnic minorities.
In what follows, we provide a multidisciplinary analysis of these cultural and social aspects, bringing together an NLP- approach with perspectives from semiotics and religious studies. In particular, we describe how these issues are represented in OITNB, comparing the outcome of an automatic analysis of subtitles, reviews, and fan-discussions with a semiotic interpretation of the series content and with recent work in the sociology of monastic institutions. Automated keyword extraction As a first step towards the automated analysis of OITNB, we created a large corpus containing enough information to explore both the series content and its reception.
In particular, we collected a dataset made of , tokens and divided in three subcorpora: For each corpus, we extracted the top-relevant 50 keywords using KD14 Moretti et al. KD is a flexible, rule-based tool, which supports English and Italian and can be adapted to any domain by setting a list of parameters to extract a list of ranked keywords. The ranking algorithms is mainly based on frequency, but takes into account also other information such as the keyphrase length i.
We chose this tool for several reasons: Second it is an off-the-shelf tool that does not require training data hence, no preliminary annotation work. Third, it is freely available, enabling other researchers to reproduce this work or apply a similar methodology to other sources of information. Finally, since it was developed at FBK, we had a complete control over all parameters and we could easily fine-tune them for our study.
We also made an extensive use of the black- list included in the tool, allowing users to manually define a set of words or expressions to be excluded during keyword extraction. This was done because in subtitles, interjections, colloquial expressions and curse words are extremely frequent, and we had to discard them in order to focus on the actual content of the series, and to make the analysis comparable with reviews and discussion forums. Support of English and Italian provided by KD was necessary in order to compare English subtitles with reviews and discussions leveraged from Italian websites.
The partial lists of keywords are reported in Fig. Top-ranked keywords extracted from of the three corpora considered Analysis and corpus comparison In this section we provide an analysis of KD results and sketch three possible research directions: Finally, we compare the NLP-based approach with a traditional semiotic approach, in order to understand if these two theoretical perspectives are complementary. Moreover, we can find some references to the ethnic barriers in the prison, for example a strong polarization between white and black inmates e.
Finally, issues about prison management are highlighted e. The critics focus on the series social criticism e. Conversely, reviews show high awareness of gender discrimination, that affects in particular one character of the show e. Other keywords are related to the specific text-genre of reviews. Indeed, many of them seem to be used to provide the reader with contextual information about the storyline of the show e.
The third corpus in our collection represents the voice of OITNB fans and their opinion on the series. It shows important differences from the other corpora: Moreover, we can notice an evaluative attitude towards characters e. Again, there is an interest in some particular scenes of the show for their aesthetic quality eg: Finally, some key-phrases are stylistic clues about the nature of these text e. In other words, discursive structures exist as a kind of fulfilment of semio-narrative ones and represent the part of the text where deep values are translated into factual elements such as characters, places, colours, figures, etc.
At the deep level, instead, we can find the value structure of the text and these values are the key to comprehend the meaning, the message, the reason why of the text itself. As a matter of fact, the series characters are portrayed in the middle of this dichotomy: The data extracted using KD would seem to confirm the interpretive hypothesis that the deep level of OITNB is structured by the opposition of sovereignty and submission, i. A first relevant term is mother, that appears as a relevant keyword both in subtitles, and in reviews, and represents a strong constraint for inmates.
Indeed, most of them are mothers unable to raise their children. Another example of the correlation between Semiotics and NLP analysis concerns the term sex, that appears in all the corpora. However, in both cases, sex is linked with the relationship between inmates and their own bodies: The expression refers to the final scene of the third season: Once again, we have two complementary reactions: Conversely, critics pay attention to social aspects of the detention problem.
Issues related to religion are rarely the core topic of the narration, and few characters are explicitly religious. In general, religion has a role only in moments of personal crisis, and religious groups tend to be under-represented, except for Catholics Engstrom, Valenzano III, or, more generally, Christians Clarke, Religion is, therefore, quite a scenery element — and for this reason the assumption is that it is Christian religion.
The extracted keywords seem to confirm the underrepresentation of religion in TV series: Even though there are obvious limits to the analogy, it is instructive to compare prison settings to monastic settings Giorda and Hejazi, , since both can be interpreted as a totalizing place where agents live with very few possibilities to communicate with the external world, organizing themselves under strict rules and living the deep and strong presence of borders.
Furthermore, the dialectic between exterior and interior involves also the psychology of inmates and, again, we can use the descriptive tools of female monasticism in order to interpret it: This strongly hierarchized space is not an abstract construction. The jail is the centre which attracts, towards which the world goes, but also a watershed, a border which separates what and who is an insider from what and who is an outsider De Certeau M.
As in the case of monastic settings, the relationship between everyday life and environment is pivotal. Through the comparison with monastic life, we can analyse the meanings of identities of the inmates, their relationships and their representation. In the first part of our work, we described the creation of the corpora and the automated text processing. In the second part, we presented the analysis of the data, which in turn was divided into three sections: In particular, we analysed religious discourse both at a textual level and at a deep level of meaning, suggesting a parallel between prison life and monastic choice.
Our study suggests that keyphrase extractors are valuable tools for guiding, enriching and validating interpretive hypotheses concerning the semantics of the linguistic level of cultural artifacts. While our focus was on the religious and gender issues figuring in OITNB, the approach can be applied to various other topics and, more generally, to text-based cultural artifacts at large. In the future, we plan to explore how the domain-specific knowledge provided by religious discourse analysis and semiotics may, in turn, be used to fine-tune KD rules and filters.
Bibliographic References Bazzanella, Carla. John Benjamins Publishing Company, Multiple Secularities Beyond the West. Religion and Modernity in the Global Age. Femminismo, critica postcoloniale e semiotica, Milano: Demaria, Cristina, and Mascio Lella. Migrazioni interculturali e propagazioni extra-testuali. Nicola Dusi and Lucio Spaziante Roma: Demaria, Cristina, and Siri Nergaard, eds. Temi e prospettive a confronto, Milano: Surveiller et punir, Paris: Giorda, Maria Chiara, Sara Hejazi.
Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. Essays on theory, film and fiction. Indiana University Press, Extracting Keyphrases from Texts with KD. Robert Musil and the Soldaten-Zeitung Robert Musil, one of the most important authors of the twentieth-century German literature, fought in the Austrian army at the Italian front. During the First World War, between and , Musil was chief editor of the Tiroler Soldaten-Zeitung in Bozen and later of the Viennese journal Heimat, where he probably authored numerous articles.
We suggest that applying methods of formal authorship attribution helps solve both issues. In , the publishing was entrusted to the Bozen-based Heeresgruppekommando Erzherzog Eugen, to which lieutenant Musil was assigned during the same year. At the beginning of October, Musil became the chief editor of the newspaper. Due to the repositioning of the commands and technical problems, the magazine publication ended in April Subsequently, Musil moved to Vienna, where he collaborated with the war journal Heimat from March to October All the 43 numbers of Soldaten-Zeitung published with the collaboration of Musil are still extant, while only 17 issues from the 34 numbers of Heimat survived.
Both in the case of the Soldaten-Zeitung and in the case of Heimat, all the articles were published anonymously. Musil scholars have never been able to define with certainty the number of texts written by the author. In Musil studies, between and , at least 40 articles were attributed to the author. However, the surprising aspect of these attributions is the lack of evidence for their assumptions.
Subsequent studies, such as the one by Arntzen , refer to Roth without highlighting her gaps in the argumentation. For our means, analysis of the individual texts thus poses a challenge. First, it will work only on the assumption that at least 8 articles were actually written by Musil but we lack any sufficient proof to sustain this assumption. Second, it will imply the adoption of a complex combinatory design: A strongly demanding computational task even for the most powerful machines: However, the complexity of this design can be reduced by introducing some careful simplifications.
As shown by Figure 1, some texts fall deeply below the 1, word- mean with a minimum of 47 words. Consequently, these texts may be preliminarily cut off from the experiment—because they are less probably attributable and because they sharply decrease the length of the text combinations. As demonstrated below, we have decided that a reasonable limit can be fixed to words, thus cutting off 9 texts from the experiment. The combinatory design could be repeated on this simplified corpus composed by a total of 28 texts reducing the number of combined texts to 6.
However, also this design could be highly demanding in computational terms: In order to further reduce this complexity, an effective expedient can be the addition of some already attributed articles to the text chunks. The number of iterations will sharply decrease to 3, However, the biggest issue with these project designs will be the interpretability of the results.
The articles published by Musil in various journals between and , available in digital format through the Klagenfurter Ausgabe Amann et al. The first one will be tested in this paper: However, methodological research advises against the application of only one approach. As noted by Juola , only the combination of different stylometric methods can provide probabilistically significant results. By consequence, the approach developed here may simply be the first stage of a multilayered authentication chain. The training set has been composed by articles published by Musil between and In order to test the combinatory design 2 , a number of test sets were composed by manually combining different disputed articles written by Musil.
However, their precise individuation—or, more properly, the definition of their probability—will be possible only after comparing the results of , iterations which will provide 80, different results for each text. A similar testing for design 3 hardly shows any text chunk placing itself outside of the Musil cluster.
Evidently, the presence of 2, words actually written by Musil inside the test set, acts as a dominant attractor towards the Musil cluster. However, further investigation reveals how an improvement of the training set actually provides some statistically significant results. This even holds when adopting the simplified combinatory design 3. The fact that the threshold length is around 1, words is also a promising result, because this corresponds with the average length of the disputed Musil articles.
However, once again, these results cannot be generalized and a more systematic research on this type of artificial test set is advisable. This approach may eventually help tackling the biggest doubt that overshadows the project: Therefore, next to expanding the research to a more comprehensive corpus comprising all issues of Soldaten-Zeitung and Heimat , our goal is to identify all—or at least the biggest part of— previously mistaken attributions. In relation to stylometry in general, this research has shown how the limit of 5, words, while necessary in itself for the construction of an effective project design, is not at all an insurmountable boundary.
Especially when the researcher, instead of looking for positive scores or strong attributions, starts looking for negative scores and structural anomalies: Robert Musil, Klagenfurter Ausgabe. University of Nebraska, — Authorship attribution, small samples, big problem. Fontanari, Alessandro, and Massimo Libardi, eds. University of Oulu, — Koppel, Moshe, and Yaron Winter. Der Dichter im Dienst des Generals. Robert Musils Propagandaschriften im ersten Weltkrieg.
Distant reading of literary journals has allowed numerous scholars to draw interesting conclusions about the forms, shapes, currents and dynamics of literary life cf. Bode , Long and So , Goldstone and Underwood In the present study we combine two approaches — co-citation network analysis and topic modelling — in order to give a nuanced view of a Polish literary-studies bimonthly Teksty Drugie [Second Texts]. The first part is dedicated to the co-citation analysis based on metadata extracted from texts published between and 28, bibliographical records and 10, unique authors.
It enabled the detection of 15 meaningful groups of authors interconnected by references they use. A subsequent part employs topic modelling to analyse full-text articles 11,3 million words published between and , which revealed thematic patterns pertinent to the journal, which are first discussed as an interconnected network and subsequently analysed in a diachronic perspective. It shows tight links between the humanities scholarship and questions pertinent to the society.
Such an approach allows for the multifaceted bird-eye view on the processes of literary scholarship. Macroanalysis and Literary Scholarship The availability of digitised full-text resources as well as bibliographical data in standard database format, opened, quite recently, a new chapter in sociology of literature, especially by revaluating empirical approaches and data-driven scholarship. This approach gathered its momentum as other works exploring applicability of distant reading emerged. Due to the shortage of space we will name just a few that have most influence on this paper, dividing them, arbitrarily, into three research strands.
Firstly, the use of bibliographical data for statistical inferences on literary processes, e. Secondly, the study of author co-occurrences and mutual references, e. Thirdly, application of topic modelling to uncover pertinent issues in literary scholarship, e. Goldstone and Underwood analyses of the evolution of American literary scholarship on the example of PMLA and seven major literary journals In combining those approaches into a macroanalytical study of Teksty Drugie we also adopted the rationale introduced by the internet edition marking the 40th anniversary of Signs, literary journal dedicated to feminist criticism1.
Material Teksty Drugie is a Polish scholarly journal dedicated to literary scholarship. It focuses on literary theory, criticism and cultural studies, while also publishing articles by authors from the neighbouring disciplines philosophy, sociology, anthropology. The journal publishes monographic issues, dedicated to particular topics or approaches within literary and cultural studies.
All those features make it a good example for exploring the vicissitudes of Polish literary scholarship. Bibliographic material consists of 28, references in texts, published between and It should be noted that each reference to a particular article or book appears only once in metadata, no matter how many times this work was cited by the author. In order to increase comparability of the data, only names of the authors or editors in case of collected volumes were used.
Overall there were 10, unique authors. More than two thirds of them The textual corpus consists of the entire collection of papers published in Teksty Drugie excluding letters, surveys, notes, etc. The material covering the years — was digitised, OCR-ed, and then manually edited, in order to exclude running heads, editorial comments, and so forth. Obviously, some textual noise — e. The material from onwards was digitally-born, but even though a small number of textual issues might have occurred. We believe, however, that distant reading techniques are resistant to small amounts of systematic noise Eder, Given the nature of Polish, which is highly inflected, lemmatization was necessary for a reliable processing of texts.
The corpus has been lemmatised with LEM 1. Piasecki, Walkowiak, Maryl, under review 2. Dynamic visualisation, supporting the interpretive process, was performed in Gephi Bastian et al. Louvain algorithm for computation Blondel et al. A bimodal network of the relations between topics were produced using, again, Gephi. Other parameters used in the study included: Subsequent trials showed that the best segmentation of the co-citation network is achieved with 27 groups among which 12 were too small for analysis. Those groups were interpreted see. The graph is bidirectional authors referencing others may have also been referenced.
Figure 1, Co-citation network of Teksty Drugie with respective clusters. Firstly, we analysed and categorised the topics on the basis of their predominant words. The categories are as follows: A thorough exploration of such models requires a topographical visualisation capable of showing the connections between various topics, which often share a key word cf. Goldstone and Underwood, For instance, almost perfectly in the geometrical centre of the network we may find topics and words pertinent to literary scholarship: Relationships between topics in Teksty Drugie. Discussion In the discussion we will elaborate the details of both models and show how both methods may complement each other.
Topic models help us understand why certain authors could be connected in the co-citation network. It could also allow us to check whether the dominance of a certain topic stems from the large number of scholars who pursue it, or rather, depends on the fact that a small group of authors has been publishing more often than others. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment Recalibrating the Literary Field. Communications of the ACM, 55 4: Goldstone, Andrew and Ted Underwood. New Literary History, 45 3: Digital Methods and Literary History. University of llinois Press. Long, Hoyt and Richard So.
Abstract Models for a Literary History. Paper submitted to DH So, Richard and Long, Hoyt Boundary 2, 40 2: Date le caratteristiche dei calcolatori elettronici, e in particolare l'aspetto computazionale Ausiello et al. Utilizzando un approccio interdisciplinare, che attinge a diversi settori, dalla critica testuale all'informatica teorica, passando per la biblioteconomia, questa relazione vuole concentrarsi sulla natura precipua delle edizioni elettroniche, analizzando da un diverso punto di vista aspetti fino ad ora considerati non rilevanti e accessori.
Come conseguenza i modelli sviluppati fino ad ora, come ad esempio il metodo Lachmann Timpanaro , o la teoria del copy-text di Bowers-Greg Greg , hanno la loro natura fondativa basata su criteri formali e nomotetici, basti pensare alla legge di maggioranza o alle differenze strutturali tra accidentals e substantials. Passando a un livello pragmatico, in un saggio di bibliografia testuale, Neil Harris cita una definizione di W. Riferimenti Bibliografici Ausiello, G.
Thinking about the digital humanities.
The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty. Why the Humanities Need Numbers to Survive". Aspen Ideas Festival Fondamenti di critica testuale. The Rationale of Copy-Text. Studies in Bibliography 3 1: A Critique of Modern Textual Criticism. University of Virginia Press. Literature after the World Wide Web. Or do electronic scholarly editions have a mercurial attitude? International seminar of Digital Philology, Edinburgh, Informatica e critica dei testi. Manuale di linguistica e filologia romanza, Manuali. TEI Consortium a cura di. Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange.
La genesi del metodo del Lachmann, Firenze: Communications of the ACM 49 3: Imagining how emerging technologies could first be tried on humanities problems and then scaled up to infrastructure for others to use has been one of the defining features of the field. The project lasted 34 years and at its peak involved as staff of 71 persons all housed in large ex-textile factory in Gallarate.
For their time they were dealing with big data, really big data. If we want to understand what is involved in scaling up to big infrastructure we should look back to the beginnings of the field and the emergence of big projects like the IT. How can we study projects as bearers of ideas? Historiography of Projects If one believes, as we do, that projects are a form of distributed cognition that create meaning, we should then ask how they work at generating and bearing meaning. Despite a lot of attention being paid to how to manage projects, there is little about how digital projects can be studied as bearers of meaning.
The IT project has the advantage of being extremely well documented, and can therefore serve as a case study right at the threshold between traditional concording projects and digital humanities projects. The Archives cover a time span of around 60 years from the beginning of the s until and contain different kinds of materials, which can be summarized as follows: The image is contained in the Busa Archives, held in the library of the same university.
For further information, or to request permission for reuse, please contact Marco Passarotti, at marco. Largo Gemelli 1, Milan, Italy. For information on the archives contact the archivist Paolo Senna at paolo. Following a specific request by Busa, the Archives still retain their original organization in sections and related boxes arranged by Busa. The irony is that very few Italian scholars seem to avail themselves of the archive. The Index Thomisticus as Project The heart of this paper is an examination of some aspects of the IT project that can shed light on DH projects in general and how they have evolved.
We will first look at how Busa conceived of the project and how that conception evolved as he developed collaborations with others and the technology changed. Then we will look at the data entry, indexing and concording process to understand the very different role of scholars and data Busa ; Busa Unlike modern big data or distant reading practices, scholars and operators were intimately involved in curating the data. Today communications would be mostly over email and such email would not be archived.
The Legacy of Father Busa to Reconcile the Two Humanities In conclusion we will discuss the the legacy of Father Busa as it applies to simplistic ideas about big data analytics in the humanities. The project of the Index Thomisticus was started because Busa needed to find a way to deal with a large amount of textual data. This need was motivated by his rigorous approach to empirical evidence.
Busa believed the greatest danger lay in considering Computational Linguistics and DH, too not as a discipline aimed at doing things better, but rather as a tool to do things faster. He was not satisfied by computer generated quick KWICs pun intended. Materials in the Archives show an incredible attention to detail from page layout to fonts to language. He feared that the computational linguists as well as computing humanists of the third millennium would cease caring for the human data which should be their bread and butter and lose the humility to check each analysis, preferring instead to process huge masses of texts quickly and approximately without even reading a line.
Today, we see this fear of Father Busa coming true in opportunistic projects. Availability of data like social media data replaces the careful gathering, enrichment and curation of appropriate data. By contrast, Busa was convinced that striving to formalize language for computing represents an extraordinary method to get to a detailed knowledge of it.
He argued that preparing textual data for computer analysis requires the scholar to dedicate more time and effort than that required for non-computer-aided research. This is clear if we look at the detailed flowchart that Tasman prepared for the building of word concordances for the Index Thomisticus see Fig. Today many projects in the digital humanities and other fields are tempted by the big data at hand. This laziness alienates "the two Humanities" namely the "Digital" Humanities and "Traditional" Humanities.
What would it mean to return to a rigorous, objective, ethical and, in a word, scientific approach to data? Primo saggio di indici di parole automaticamente composti e stampati da macchine IBM a schede perforate. Their Applications to Science and Industry. New York, Reinhold Publishing: The Priest and the Punched Cards. A commercial security firm was pitching a bank to get a contract to use surveillance software and cyber attacks to delegitimize WikiLeaks!
Tools and techniques that had previously been developed and used by government agencies for counterterrorism were now being deployed by the commercial sector to interfere rhetorically in the public sphere. And that is what this paper is about, the importance to the humanities of analytical tools and services of companies like Palantir. Specifically in this paper we will: Palantir and Commercial Surveillance Fig. What is less well understood are the commercial tools that are being sold to intelligence services and other organizations including repressive regimes Hern What we do know comes from cases where surveillance companies have been hacked themselves like the Anonymous hack and the later hack of the Italian company Hacking Team Hern Reading the Surveillance Things The humanities have traditionally concerned themselves with the interpretation of human expression in its different forms.
Software like Palantir can be thought of as a tool or as an instantiation of a hermeneutic. In the second part of this paper we will argue that digital humanists are well positioned to critically read the traces of the tools being used to manage public discourse. We will discuss the approaches one can take, drawing on humanities traditions, to reading the tools as communicative frames. We will also discuss what we as digital humanists need to learn to study software and infrastructure critically. One thing we need to learn to do is to read the forms of information exchange common in business and security circles.
This includes the sorts of commercial literature used to promote analytical tools, the forms of documentation shared, and above all PowerPoint decks, which have become a currency in intelligence circles. None of these are really great literature; they are genres generally ignored in the humanities, but they are what we have as traces of surveillance.
As modern-day paleographers we need to adapt our hermeneutical methods to these commercial genres. In this paper we will argue that these tools build representations of people and their stories. We can consider tools like Palantir as story-telling tools and some of the documentation for Palantir treats them this way. We will argue that the digital humanities therefore has a responsibility to think through what and how they tell stories that affect us.
When thinking about big data we can talk about reading communities. Reading makes meaning, but it does so in networked communities of readers. What do these tools say about their intended communities? Can we create new and critical communities for these tools? Can we recover the role of interpretation or theory Anderson in the face of commercial interests? We believe it is doubtful that knowledge can exist without interpretation which is why we need to not only interpret big data, but also the tools of interpretation like Palantir.
Bibliographical References Anderson, C. Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Many Faces of Anonymous. Il Problema Della Formalizzazione. Computer-Assisted Interpretation in the Humanities. The answer was not simple nor linear and directly involved the Digital Humanities DH from now on as a disciplinary and research field that was still poorly and controversially defined.
Thaller wondered how, providing certain conditions, DH could bring out the Humanities from the Indian reserve where they are now confined. In particular DH specialists should: A few months after the conference Serge Noiret wrote on Digital History one of my personal fields of research trying to clarify what actually characterizes this subject within the wider field of DH, and - within the Digital History itself - what is the specific task of the Digital Public History Noiret ; see also Robertson Digital History and Digital Public History are clearly seen as areas of research and not merely as new forms of communication of old disciplines.
Moreover he answered to items 2 and 3 too, essentially proposing a more accurate taxonomy of DH. I do not want to linger in this paper on the definition of DH as a whole nor of its components: Frustrating because, as many authors and research centers have declared, despite its now long history, the DH is still an emerging field, and as well as an open, multifaceted, ever-changing one; risky, because each taxonomy of knowledge unavoidably builds walls and fences that encase the knowledge itself in a series of sterile boxes.
It's more important to go beyond a possible but also difficult definition of DH and their several sub-disciplines, focusing our attention on items 2 and 3 of the Thaller list instead, namely on the need to have our own vision and on the importance to characterize DH in terms of the emerging changes of method in our daily research. In particular I will try to connect the concepts expressed by both scholars, looking on the one hand to the recent history of DH in Italy i. Some graduate programs born in the begiining of the new century had a more or less long life, partly as a result of the continued reforms of the university rules.
Currently the only full course of Informatica Umanistica Humanities Computing with BA and MA degree is in Pisa, but there are BA and MA degrees with different names in other Italian universities, such as Viterbo, Venice or Padua; there are alto several specialization courses after University, a sign that he feels a strong need for training in the sector, although the formalization of this bisdogno is hampered by grid reference standard Inside the course degree in Pisa I will focus very briefly on some projects.
A re-reading partly driven and partly spontaneous of the epigraphic messages left over time in a city. In the area of Digital Public History: Itinerari tra generazioni lungo i crinali della Val di Vara a complex project aimed at enhancing the cultural heritage of an Italian rural valley through the active participation of residents. In the field of Digital Editions: By shortly describing these project I will not try to figure out what distinguishes them from each other, but, on the contrary, what characterizes all of them as Digital Culture projects and what they tell us about a possible vision of DH: This may seem trivial but it is not.
They are digital because they might not otherwise exist. Openness is a result and a choice. Working in a multidisciplinary team built upon research and with different tools, sustainability requires using open source tools, sharing data between individuals and giving everything to the public. Then Openness is a natural result, even it is also an ethical, political and philosophical choice as the Digital Manifesto 2.
In a Renaissance workshop it was possible to produce different objects: The owner of the shop or the head-artist had not necessarily to know each technique as an expert, but his employees could in many ways be superior and the various members of the workshop could learn from each other. The owner had to keep the team together with a well clear idea of the work itself.
The basis first phases of the work are often composed by students of the Bachelor and Master's degree in DH, who work, in the labCD, as interns or undergraduates. The manager is not required - nor humanly could - to know every aspect in depth, nor to be fully aware of all the problems related to it, or to master each technique: The core of DH is unitary and lies in the conviction that the digital turn has permeated every aspect of our lives as people and scholars modifying them deeply. In the 70s of XXth century has increasingly gained ground a vision of Humanities Computing that kept almost unchanged the traditional disciplines within their rigid internal divisions and distinguished the humanist from the expert in information technology, hoping and promoting a dialogue between the two main areas still in Fusi , I, p.
Today this position is no longer sustainable. The web in first place and the web 2. We are obviously still in a transitional phase. It 's more and more widespread the awareness that we are a new type of scholar and graduate, and PhD , the digital humanist, someone who has a mixed formation, an open mind, is able to master both languages and the main methodological issues of the two areas without considering one serving the other.
In doing so, we need to maintain the epistemological strictness that each discipline involved in the DH has developed over time: As we know reductionism believes that studying in depth a peculiarity of a phenomenon and understanding it completely it will be possible, by progressive addition of discoveries, illuminate the entire system.
The reductionist approach has been, as we know, the basis for the scientific revolution of the modern age, but it also led in the eighteenth and nineteenth century to an exasperate fragmentation of the fields of scientific research. This phenomenon has also heavily influenced the Humanities,often creating absurd barriers and hyper-specialized languages, that have closed researches in several walled gardens.
I believe that this long wave has exhausted its strength and that precisely the DH can reverse the trend. This change of paradigms could and should affect the DH as well for the reasons listed above, promoting a systemic view of this meta-discipline and therefore pushing Digital Humanists to deeply transform the old practice of work.
Bibliographical References Adamo G. A Unifying Vision, Cambridge; italian edition Vita e natura. Una visione sistemica, Sansepolcro Ciotti F. In questo articolo presentiamo due sperimentazioni fatte tenendo presente questo obiettivo. Nel primo caso abbiamo applicato tecniche di visual analytics su un corpus testuale formato da parte della corrispondenza di Galileo Galilei, contenuta nella biblioteca galileiana di Firenze. Per esempio i grafici della storia quantitativa, le mappe della geografia o gli alberi genealogici utilizzati come forme di rappresentazione astratta dei dati Moretti La sperimentazione con applicazione web La prima sperimentazione fatta adotta tecniche di visual analytics per la gestione dei dati testuali.
Abbiamo infatti iniziato a utilizzare le funzioni di rappresentazione visuale che le librerie D3 JS mettono a disposizione. In particolare si tratta del volume XV che contiene lettere relative ad un arco temporale che va da gennaio alla fine di dicembre dello stesso anno. Per esempio emersione di arcaismi evidenti nelle forme, soprattutto verbali: Criteri di razionalizzazione dei dati hanno imposto un taglio delle forme con frequenze basse. Fornendo al tempo stesso indicazioni di volume struttura, relazioni e tipologia dei dati e suggerire ulteriori analisi e studi.
In ambito mobile, la consultazione dei contenuti testuali si intreccia con i dati geografici e spesso avviene in loco: Sulla mappa si evidenziano ad esempio le aree in cui un determinato progettista ha operato, attribuibili ad uno stile architettonico o legate alla presenza di specifici interventi ricostruzione, riqualificazione, etc. I, ISBN , pp. Tools and Resources Supporting the Cultural Tourism. Challenges for visual analytics. Information Visualization, 8 4 , This information opens a number of new research perspectives.
First, one can study the fluctuations of social and administrative geographies over the time. Second, one can compare the comprehensive visions of the geography of the Islamic world given by geographers from different periods and different parts of the Islamic world. The way the authors describe the history of an area at nearly close or exact time span shows how the area changes over time.
At the core of these discussions stands historical data that explains regional divisions. Regions might vary from source to source and from time to time. With such data, we can use computational approaches to model different aspects of regional histories and find answer to questions like: In this paper we examine various mathematical models for geographical hierarchical and route network data that can be collected from premodern sources. Although we focus here on Islamic texts, the same approach can be applied to geographical texts that supply similar type of data in any historical language.
We implement corresponding visualizations to provide a better visual insight into relevant data and to demonstrate how they fit into each model. We also evaluate these models by describing their strong and weak sides. This data contains only one level of regional divisions i. Any other datasets can fit into our model if they offer a structurally similar information on places and their provincial affiliations. The input data should be in one of these data formats: In Figure 2 we can see part of this data more closely.
We use the resulting visual perception to improve the current model or think of a new one. We consider the mathematical models quadtree clustering Samet, , Voronoi diagram Aurenhammer, , convex hull, and concave hull. Our implementations of these particular models are based on Meeks, Quadtree We first start with quadtree clustering which divides the space into a multi-level grid cells on the plane such that each cell contains one or more settlements.
An illustration is shown in Figure 3. We will finally have each individual settlement in the smallest cells in the lowest level of tree structure. Figure 3 shows circles with different radiuses representing distinct levels of zooming. More clearly, bigger circles contain smaller regions or settlements and the smallest circles stand for individual settlements. Quadtree performs well to depict the density of settlements and thus to show the contrast of settled vs.
Furthermore, this model is useful for datasets without any hierarchical information. However, this is not what literally the regions have been shaped in the real world. It means, this algorithm does not allow to take advantage of hierarchical divisions, as its clustering is based on spatial proximity. Quadtree Visualization of Settlements Voronoi Diagram Voronoi diagram is another model which we examine here. Assuming that each settlement is a generating point on the plane, the Voronoi algorithm divides the plane into cells in shape of polygons such that every single cell contains exactly one generating point.
The divisions are calculated so that the distance of every point in a cell to the generating point in that cell is shorter than to any other generating point on the plane. All polygons cells that belong to the same region—here we can take advantage of hierarchical data— are filled with the same color. Thus, areas formed from polygons of the same color represent distinct regions..
The same idea applies to the higher level of hierarchies by merging the regions. Voronoi Diagram for Region Visualization There is an issue with the classic implementation of Voronoi diagram regarding the plane on which the Voronoi diagram is expanded. The points in our dataset belong only to a limited area of the Earth, but Voronoi divides the whole Earth to place the points in polygons. Consequently, we will have a diagram expanded all over the Earth with very large cells where the points are sparse, like those close to the borders of regions.
To fix this problem, we limit the plane to the working area the area in which all coordinates fit into , instead of drawing the diagram on the whole Earth. For this purpose, we clip the Voronoi diagram with the bounding box of the working area. In Figure 4, we also have added a filter to exclude areas bigger than a specific value to visually skip unnecessarily big partitions. We calculate this value by considering the average area of all polygons.
Hence, this value may vary for each dataset. Voronoi diagram provides more insightful shapes of regions compared to quadtree since it actually takes the advantage of the hierarchical data. It forms regions based on the position of points on the plane without any overlap of the regions. Subsequently, it leaves no unpartitioned space also overextending regions into uninhabitable areas such as seas and deserts.
To address these problems we need to make some modifications. Voronoi Clippings The first step we took to customize the Voronoi diagram was to clip it by the bounding box of the working area. The result is a rectangular area divided by Voronoi polygon. Since we are working on pre-modern data, we cannot clip the diagram by modern country borders. Hence, we should find the best estimation of a working area. The convex hull de Burg, of the all points is a polygon which encompasses all points.
This is a convincing poly which we can utilize to clip the Voronoi diagram. And here again, I record the itinerary that I followed with Eduardo and his displacements, between error and wan- derings. Wandering is related to displacement and to error. Whereas errant is one who errs, who strays; a bum; a vagrant, a nomad, a wanderer. The semantic field that involves transitions between these terms transits between fault, error, deviation and crossing. In the relationship with error and deviation — which is not individual or collective; which is body but exceeds it — the virtuality of the living makes it possible to think of alterna- tive ways of inhabiting the world.
The second form examines about how to relate below the line of the Equator with these theories of biopolitics. Executing a move- ment similar to that which I tried to accomplish here, she inquires whether the racial and sexual configurations of the empire were constitutive rather than peripheral and responds in the affirmative, concluding that race and sexuality share their emergence with the bourgeois order in the early nine- teenth century.
Stoler then questions whether, in the context of the Europe of the s, Foucault could have written a history of racism in a political envi- ronment in which racial identity had no political force, and in which no stra- tegic space for race existed p. It is, therefore, about breaking with Eurocentric hegemony and making the most of the concepts formulated there. Biopolitics and biopower then emerges as a vast field to be studied through ethnography. Clearly it is not enough to add local stories and stir.
It is important that the experiences from down here affect, in the strong sense 16 On the proposal to provincialize Europe, see Chakrabarty The challenge resides in verifying how these theories with their power and limits, which are being handled by us, can be renewed, rewritten, recreated from the margins and, to use an expression that is dear to us, de- voured, here, in the heat of the tropics.
Approved October 28, Quelche resta de Auschwitz: Global responses to aids: Hacia el origen del mito de la modernidad. Rio de Janeiro, Fiocruz, p. Emergent forms of life and the anthropological voice. The Will to Knowledge: The History of Sexuality, vol. New York, Radom House. Society must be defended: Foucault, governmentality and life politics.
New York University Press 1. Between bench and bedside: Graal, Rio de Janeiro. The University of Chicago Press.
The age of immunology: Annual Review of Anthropology, Sociedade e Cultura, 4 2: Essays on the anthropology of reason. University of Chicago Press. Testing women, testing the fetus: The politics of life itself: Northeastern University Press, pp. Race and the education of desire: Mais realistas do que o rei: The text consists of a historical approach to the emergence of the problem, an analysis of the political strategies of the Parliamentary Inquiry Committee on Pedophilia and an ethnographic description of the police investigations into child pornography on the internet.
Soon law enforcement agencies — the Federal Police and the Public Prosecutors - started to demand new le- gal tools to combat the problem. A senator, who became the chairman of PIC Pedophilia, embraced the cause. I would like to thank my PhD supervisor, Adriana Vianna; Stela Oliveira, who helped me with the translation from Portuguese to English of the different versions of this article; Chloe Nahum-Claudel, who edited the first English version of the paper; and Peter Fry, responsible for the final editing of the text. This epis- temological approach is also based on the premise that social problems and deviant categories can be understood as effects of moral crusades and regula- tory practices, as proposed by authors who pioneered labeling theory, such as Howard Becker and Stanley Cohen The aim of such a moral enterprise is to sensitize and gain the support of powerful groups and insti- tutions.
Next, new rules and strategies of control are formulated and sub- sequently applied to specific behaviors and individuals now identified as deviant. It is worth re- membering that the main focus of the moral crusade analyzed in this paper is not child sexual abuse itself, but the dissemination of images of child por- nography on the web. Since this phenomenon takes place in the fluid and de- territorialized space of the internet, the crime here in question escapes the borders and the control of any particular national jurisdiction.
That is why, this case study of a local expression of the combat against a transnational crime might hopefully shed light on the international political and law en- forcement efforts to which the Brazilian scenario is strongly connected. In order to understand how these categories are socially constructed, contextually defined and of- ten blurred, it is important to place their use amongst a series of enuncia- tions and practices that construct the figure of an enemy to be pursued: The monster, in the foucauldian sense, belongs to the domain of the unintelligible and unnatural, combining the impossible, the forbidden and the unthinkable Foucault, For the analysis of the emergence of child pornography as an internet crime, see Jenkins , As I sug- gested elsewhere Lowenkron, , the words are not neutral and the so- cial categories chosen to define a social problem are strongly connected to the ways it is morally understood and also to the political strategies used to combat it.
Sexual violence against children: Jenkins identifies two types of approaches to social problems. The 44 vibrant v. The objectivist social scientist aims to quantify the problem, explore its roots, and offer possible solutions to it. The other is the constructionist approach, in which the core question is not about checking if the problem exists or gauging how damaging it is, but investigating how a certain condition starts to be taken as a problem. The present study takes this second perspective. It is important to highlight that the construction of social problems is part of the dynamics of politics as a whole.
As Becker suggests, it consists of a process that includes conflict between different individuals and groups. Each is motivated by various interests to try and persuade the others to ob- tain official recognition and the support of the authority and power of the state to their particular enterprises Becker, It is worth noting that if, on the one hand, the kinds produced are not confused with the people they describe, on the other, they do not fail to af- fect and, to some extent, create those who are classified as a certain kind of person Hacking, It is noteworthy that such taxonomies and classifica- tions do not exist only within the language, but also in the institutions, prac- tices, and within the material interaction with things and with others5.
As Hacking points out , most people who use the idea of social con- struction lay all their enthusiasm in criticism, in the transformation or de- struction of what is subject to analysis. We must therefore make it clear that the proposition that the phenomenon of sexual violence against children is a socially constructed problem should not be confused with an attitude of mis- trust or with an attempt to relativize its existence.
What is aimed here is to demonstrate how, in the last decades, this prob- lem has been particularized and transformed into a priority agenda in na- tional and international social and political contexts, and discuss how it has been understood and labeled in various ways.
As he argues, the refugee woman is not just a sort of person, but a legal and para-legal entity, used by committees, schools, social workers, activists and refugees Hacking, According to the author, sexual violence was not particularized until the 18th century. Until then, the notion of violence applied only to any form of physical injury. Governed by Divine Law, the so called crimes of lust, such as sodomy, fornication and adultery, were seen as acts of desecration and contagious degradation that merged criminal and victim in the same indig- nity.
In that context, rape against minors did not constitute a specific crimi- nal category. On the crime of incest the theme was that of sin and moral infamy with the certainty of the corruption of the child defining the severity of the act. Centered on the principles of a free and autonomous will, the new legal doctrine based on the modern individualist ideal defines that consent should be the principal criterion for defining the legitimacy and lawfulness of these acts.
Therefore, the assessment of historical transformations of gender inequalities is vital for the changes in the percep- tion of sexual violence. Two social movements were responsible for displacing sexuality from the private and sacred family space to the center of political debates related to the rights of the individual: Their criticisms hit the three main pillars of Western erotic economy up to that time: The politicization of sexuality unleashed a changing process of the moral economy of the use of pleasures, by moving or, at least, questioning the main criteria for ordering the hierarchies of sexual legitimacy: Hence the liminarity of children and the particular- ity of intergenerational sexual interactions involving children, due to the special condition of these subjects considered irresponsible to freely consent in sexual relations.
To do so, one needs to place the construction of this cause in relation to a broader social process of construction and sacralization of a modern ideal of childhood engendered in the 18th century and reconfigured and given even greater importance in the late 20th century. The new ideal of the child as subject of rights draws political attention to its corollary: More than contradictory, these opposing childhood figures can be understood as interdependent and complementary poles - one representing the childhood politically conceived and the other, the most extreme limit of the deviation from this ideal.
In this con- text, the sexual offenses against children gain a new sense: These rights were further laura lowenkron vibrant v. Since then, civil society organizations and public authorities have prepared strategies and instruments to combat the various forms of violence against children and adolescents.
Since then, the Plan has become the national guideline in the frame- work of public policies for combating sexual violence against children and adolescents Brazil, The matter came to 50 vibrant v. In , the Brazilian Federal police in partnership with Interpol began to conduct a series of operations, aiming to combat child pornography on the World Wide Web. In , an important civil society organization appeared: This NGO was responsible for the creation of a hotline www.
In , the Federal Department of Public Prosecution in partnership with SaferNet, engaged in a long legal battle against one of the largest inter- net companies in the world, Google, in order to make it comply with the or- ders of the Brazilian judicial system, providing the data of users suspected of offering child pornography on the Orkut — which was, at the time, the main online social network among Internet users in the country and, consequently, the most frequently used site for the distribution of the greatest amount of child pornography among Brazilians.
Musician and evangelical pastor, the senator gained notoriety due to his political combat against organized crime, as the chairman of the Parliamentary Inquiry Committee on Drug Trafficking Based on a religious moral struggle of good versus evil, the crusade made use of a strategy of criminalization to address the issue. The criminal concerned would be portrayed as not only malevolent but also sick. The Parliamentary Inquiry Committee on Pedophilia: But the Federal Office of Public Prosecutors had sent me images, one of which, the last one, was particularly shocking, and it had helped me come to a definite decision.
It showed a man in his seventies having sexual intercourse with a 4-year-old child. As it can be noted in the quote above, extracted from an interview with Senator Magno Malta, the chairman of the Parliamentary Inquiry Committee on Pedophilia attributed his political engagement and endeavor to create the Committee to the excruciating distress he experienced when he was exposed to the facts and, above all, to the images of children being sexually abused. The aim is to introduce a question that seems to be fundamental for the consideration of political discussions about childhood in general, and sexual abuse of children in particular: The socially prescribed character of emotions was recognized by social scientists long ago.
Mauss  was a pioneer in drawing attention to the social and ritual dimensions of the expression of feelings which had previously been taken as merely natural and spontaneous. More recently scholars have stressed the political dimensions of emotions and emotional discourses either in everyday interaction Lutz e Abu-Lughod or in the public sphere Goodwin et al, Bailey , for example, suggests that the displays of emotion are devices for persuasion which play a much larger part than reason in governing people.
Irvine points out that overt emo- tion is not only increasingly acceptable but seemingly required in contempo- rary politics, since western societies consider feelings not only the core of the self, but also the main field of morality. No sooner had the request for the creation of the Parliamentary Inquiry Committee on Pedophilia been drafted than the necessary signatures of support were collected.
In order to achieve his goal, i. Analyzing the case, Linda Williams coined a term to describe this paradoxical movement that brings the obscene to the public scene in order to keep it out of scene: This case study was also analyzed, from a different approach, by Judith Butler However the inner feelings of the spectators of those scenes are not ob- ject of anthropological research. So, the focus of this ethnographic descrip- tion is to show how certain emotional responses are socially prescribed, morally imposed and publicly displayed Mauss, and to analyze the ef- fects of such emotive discourse understood as a form of social action Lutz e Abu-Lughod One will never conjure a scene with a one-year-old girl or a boy, or a 6-month baby having sex with two men.
Or a father doing that to his own child. Or a priest abusing a child or a pediatrician raping a day-old baby with his own mouth. In that re- spect, most parliamentarians admitted off the record to feel morally coerced to approve the bills proposed by the committee, an attitude that illustrates one of the most dangerous effects of moral panics, i.
The same Bill also stiffened the penalties for crimes related to the production, commercialization and distribution of child pornography. The expertise of this team provided the projects with a solid legal base. Consequently, the projects were not rejected for technical reasons, even if some may disagree with the use of legislative means in due course, that is, criminal law as a strategy for addressing the problem. However, the laura lowenkron vibrant v. According to the clinical and forensic psychologists, Taylor e Quayle The main model of intervention imagined for this age group in the PIC Pedophilia was not criminalization, but family vigilance, the develop- ment of technological filters and educative campaigns very often based on pedagogies of fear.
Nevertheless, it is important to understand the moral justification for the establishment of this legal age criterion. Of course, this discussion was not brought to the public arena of the PIC Pedophilia, since the pornographic images involving adolescents would not have the same emotional appeal as the pictures of sexual abuse of very young children described by the senator Magno Malta. However, the point I want to make in this paper is that the moral, legal and emotional responses toward the different conducts related to pornographic images depicting young chil- dren cannot be taken as self-evident.
Because this social reaction can easily be 10 As suggested by some sex panic scholars Rubin, ; Lancaster, , these moral crusades often leave a residue in the form of laws that may affect the way in which sexuality is regulated long after the immediate political context.
Since those images were the focus of the public debate of the PIC Pedophilia, the moral justifications for their criminalization were particularly evident in my fieldwork. How can different ways of relating to the images production, commercialization, distribution and storage be articulated to a continuum of violence and framed in the same sexual perversion? This was the danger that persuaded parliamentarians to criminalize the possession of child pornographic material. If on the one hand these two models of understanding can be separated for analytical purposes, or as a means to set the boundaries between politi- cal positions, on the other it can be argued that both the arguments seek to 11 According to the psychologists Taylor and Quayle, different psychological theories have been proposed to establish the possible relationship between pornography and sexual assault.
Some suggest that masturbation in front of child pornography replace the abuse. Others, on the contrary, consider that pornography may reinforce existing sexual fantasies. The main landmark was the signing by Google of this term, and the subse- quent disclosure of the confidential contents of all denounced Orkut albums. In other words, to collect evidence and identify the culprit.
As proposed by Becker , the process of accusa- tion is central to the passage of transgressive acts to deviant identities. In most cases, the crime is reported anonymously. Of course, not all denunciations lead to a full inquiry. Selecting the denunciations worth investigating constitutes a painstaking and thorough task. It is important, therefore, to examine the cri- teria the Federal Police agents use to classify the denouncer and the denun- ciation, as they evaluate each case. First, there is a hierarchy of denouncers that the agents cannot ig- nore. For example, denunciations forwarded by the Federal Office of Public Prosecutors will not be ignored or discharged, even if they seem unfruitful at first sight, and an investigation will be carried out within a deadline.
The definitions of child pornography in the police investigations can therefore be quite complex, as suggested by the forensic psychologists Taylor and Quayle 13, based on their experience within the COPINE Project Combating Pedophile Information Networks in Europe. There are some stupid parents that do that; they take photos of their naked children and find it beautiful.
Ah, a naked little girl with a hat on…. In practice therefore, it is not enough for the victims to be under age, they must also look like minors. The stylization15 of bodies and acts is fundamental to the construction and essentialization of age categories, here in question. Although the author refers to the performative dimension of gender and not age, their formulations may be appropriate here to consider the construction processes of age categories. In some cases, there is no doubt.
How it is done? Most crime reports received by the police from internet users are links to web pages that display girls and young women with lean bodies, small breasts, few curves, fine or no pubic hair, wearing clothes and acting out childlike performances. According to the agent, a closer analysis will tell the difference between the simulated child pornography and the images that are unquestionably of minors, despite recognizing that it is not always possible to make sure that the young girls are minors or a little over 18 years old.
The aesthetic parameters used by the police officers to characterize mi- nors constitute a set of varied elements and require an expertise that comes with time and much practice of analyzing the images of naked bodies. Despite that, some of the images are dubious and raise discussions about whether or not there are minors involved in the scene.
Asian-descendent girls, for example, are considered by federal police officers to be difficult to categorize according to Western age patterns, because they do not have breasts, curves or pubic hair. Still with regard to the characterization of minors in pornographic scenes, it is important to note that, as proposed by Goffman , being a certain kind of person is not merely possessing the necessary attributes, but also keeping the standards of conduct and appearance associated with the social group or category to which the individual belongs.
Taking part in the analysis of a mute video with one of the police officers during fieldwork - a video in which a young girl had sexual intercourse with three young men at the same time - I said she looked like a minor because of her physical appearance. The officer, however, disagreed, arguing that she looked be over 18 years old because not only did she seemed to be perfectly aware of what was going on, but she also knew how to act in the situation, and seemed to be taking pleasure in it. During a second viewing, though, now with sound on, the agent conclud- ed that the girl did not seem so responsive to what was going on.
Therefore, the agent reconsidered his first impression and wrote in his report that there was evidence that the girl was a minor. In case of doubt about the pornographic nature of the scene or the status of the people involved as minors, a prosecution procedure is not started. This selection criterion is based on a pragmatic, time saving decision, which leads to giving priority to investigations that are more likely to succeed. After the warrant has been issued by a judge, an operation of search and seizure of evidence stored in computers and other electronic media is carried out.
If elements of the violation of a federal law can be substantiated before a Federal Judge, the subject will be prosecuted. With the dissemination of horror as a privileged political strategy and the criminalization of pedophilia as the main instrument of combat, the crusade produced an atmosphere of diffuse red danger and the figure of a nebulous enemy, a sneaky and not easily recognized monster, whom it was necessary to monitor, diagnose, identify, unveil and punish.
However, as pointed out above, it is hardly ever possible to identify the chil- dren shown in pornographic images on the Internet, the first step towards stopping the abuses and protecting the child. The analysis of the political debates demonstrates that the above mentioned con- sumers and distributers are accountable not only for what they do divulging, laura lowenkron vibrant v. This idea is suggested in the pronouncement of Senator Magno Malta, when referring to the damage pedophiles caused to the victims who appear in the images: The political focus and collective fears were then redirected to the menace of a sexual perversion almost always associated to the figure of the Other; the unknown and unrecognizable, to the dangerous stranger that wanders round and round different neighborhoods, 18 Montgomery carried out an ethnographic study about child prostitution based on 15 months of fieldwork in a Thai village.
She argues that western ideal of innocence that orients the moral and political approach of foreign activists engaged in the combat of the problem in non-western countries distort the lives of these underage victims and lead to unproductive policies. I do not wish to suggest that the mere substitution of words or models is enough to ensure in an immediate and magical way, another view of the phenomenon and much less to transform cultural and historically institu- tionalized administrative practices.
In this regard, I would like to make it clear that the constructionist perspective adopted in this text should not be confused with a relativistic stance that defines many anthropological analyses. That is why I believe it is relevant to discuss the effects of the concep- tualization and the combat of the phenomenon of sexual violence against 68 vibrant v. The tactical uses of passions. New York, London, Sydney: The Force of Fantasy: Folk devils and moral panics: La police des familles. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders text revision.
Passionate politics — emotions and social movements. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Mary Douglas and David Hull eds. New York and London: New York University Press. New Haven and London: Sex panic and the punitive state. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Language and the politics of emotion. The anatomy of disgust.
Revista Sociedade e Estado, v. Children in the global sex trade. Regarding the pain of others. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. The age of consent: The Regulation of Sexuality since , New York: We know that the relationship between anti-colonial thought and the so- cial sciences has been complex on a variety of fronts. On the one hand, the social sciences, especially anthropology, grew and gained power within the academic world thanks to the new fields of investigation opened up by colo- nialism.
On the other hand, there has been what we could call a creolization of the social sciences by natives from various social positions and classes, ranging from field assistants who, soon after independence, became an- thropologists of their home country, gaining access to spaces traditionally denied to them in research centers such as the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute Pels , Schumaker , to the use of training in social sciences by young scholars who soon after — or even during their university education in the West — were helping to organize the fight for independence in their countries and became leaders of these struggles among others, Kenyatta, Nkrumah and Mondlane.
Hence the anti-colonial narratives of these future leaders made use of hegemonic discourses in the social sciences or some of 1 For the help received in terms of suggestions, as well as copies of documents and texts not available in Brazilian libraries, I wish to thank Omar Thomaz Unicamp , Luca Bussotti U. Mondlane , David Brookshaw M.
Special thanks also go to the many members of the H-LUSO electronic network who quickly and generously offered suggestions and passed on copies of more inaccessible documents. I am also indebted to the anonymous reviewers for the very valuables suggestions and remarks. This was the case, for example, of cultural rela- tivism employed in the writings and speeches of Kenyatta and Nkrumah or, two decades later, reference group theory, developed in social psychol- ogy, in the formation and manifestation of racial prejudice used by Eduardo Mondlane in his anti-colonialist discourse, which always remained, we could say, strongly humanist 2.
While various studies have already been undertaken of the biographies and theoretical genealogies of Kenyatta and Nkrumah, from the hagiog- raphies to the synthetic and national biographies, the case of Eduardo Mondlane is still relatively little researched, although the complexity of his life history could and should have attracted more attention from social scien- tists.
A quick search on the amazon. His marriage to Janet Rae Mondlane 4 Manghezi, ; 3.
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By contrast Mondlane wrote little about his stay in the United States, except in letters to his wife and a few col- leagues Rae Mondlane , in a speech he delivered to the United Nations Special Committee on Territories under Portuguese Administration on April 10, 8, and, in December , in an interesting but brief biographical note running to two pages 9.
Kumba Simango had obtained a doctorate under Franz Boas in the s and was also assisted by the Methodist Church network and support, but does not seem to have returned to Mozambique and his trajectory is primarily interesting in terms of gaining a better understanding of the complex history of the subject-object relation in anthropological practice. I thank the anonymous reviewer of my text for having indicated this source.
Harris Papers, National Anthropological Archive. It is worth em- phasizing that more recently new biographies of African leaders have been published, which far from being hagiographic or part of a nationalist project, try to give a more balanced portrayal of these leaders, including explorations of some of their singular contradictions Here I wish to concentrate on the case of Eduardo Mondlane, complex enough by itself, based on an analysis of his life and academic production, especially the long eleven years that he spent in the United States, although, perhaps less intensely, he continued to publish and maintain contacts with researchers after settling in Dar Es Salaam In this text I explore the relation between Mondlane and the social sciences — the academic world of sociology and anthropology.
I knew him personally and at the time of the Presidential visit he came to congratulate me for the enthusiasm and order of the natives during the different manifestations.
He invited me more than once to have lunch with him but I never accepted his invitations. As he was inciting some natives to refuse assimilation, the idea was raised to ask him to abandon the Province but the American General Consulate anticipated this plan and ceased to pay him his monthly allowance, forcing him to leave. At the General Assembly of the United Nations last year, via the American Committee on Africa, he launched a vehement attack on Portugal, widely distributing leaflets and pamphlets to the different delegations. I have in my possession one of these pamphlets, offered by the Australian delegation.
The first correspondence is found in the M. Other documents were made available, in a generous spirit of collaboration, by the Oberlin College Archives and the Roosevelt University Archive. In the middle of this correspondence I encountered interesting newspa- per cuttings, pamphlets and a series of letters written by Mondlane to other social scientists.
I thank one of the unknown reviewers for this piece of information. As can be conferred in the article by Macagno as well as the correspondence, especially of Marvin Harris and Charles Wagley, but also of Herskovits, the plan backfired. These authors became staunch critics of Portuguese colonialism.
This experi- ence of research, studying, lecturing and living in Chicago and the nearby region was a determining factor in the formation of Mondlane as a social scientist, of course, but also of his ideals concerning the independence of Mozambique and the emancipation of Africans from lack of formal educa- tion The period during which he lived in the United States, in the s until , was decisive because it corresponded to the Cold War period when the US government decided to invest in Area Studies Peterson and, as part of this policy, develop African Studies and encourage young Africans to come to the United States universities.
These were the most intense and turbulent years in the independence processes of the ma- jority of African countries. They were also the years that saw the groundwork laid for the civil rights campaign in the black American community Fertile years, then, that made Chicago and its surrounding region to some extent the second pan-African agora in the United States, after New York. After being forced prematurely to abandon his studies in social ser- vices at Witwatersrand University in South Africa — his visa renewal was refused as the apartheid regime hardened immediately after the National Party won the elections — and having to spend some time in Maputo without being able to continue his studies 20 Mondlane travelled to Lisbon to continue his studies at the Faculty of Literature of the University of 17 This topic had attracted the attention of many prestigious foreign researchers from the s to the s: Gunnar Myrdal, for example, who in , precisely because he was a foreigner, was invited by the Carnegie Foundation to direct the major research project that would result in the classic work An American Dilemma, as well as Oracy Nogueira, who conducted research from to on prejudice, precisely in Chicago too.
Although I have no evidence to the effect, and Oracy studied sociology under Donald Pierson, it is very likely that Oracy and Mondlane had met in the city, perhaps through Herskovits himself who maintained contacts with Brazilian researchers visiting the USA or who had completed doctorates in the country. Without any claim to being exhaustive, the text seeks to complement other recent descriptions of the period during which Mondlane lived in the United States Cossa , de Jesus , focusing on his academic production.
The political climate left him dissatisfied, though. Moreover he got tired of the special attention police devoted to African students. This institution, Kevin Yelvington tells me in a personal commu- nication, had the reputation of being a very liberal university. Since it had encouraged black students to enroll in its courses Minter in press. For several of them Oberlin was a trampoline to graduate studies in the best known universities. Oberlin, moreover, has a long association with Africa.
Other African leaders had studied at Oberlin prior to Mondlane, to begin with the Zulu leader and first president of the African National Congress, John Dube, at the end of the nineteenth century de Barros He became fa- miliar with the ideas of Booker Washington at the college and later tried to adapt them to the Zulu context in South Africa.
Bunche was a representative of the United States at the United Nations. Bunche, the first black American to have a prominent role at the United Nations, 21 According to Kevin Yelvington, a bust of Mondlane exists at this university, an important Black College: It was at Northwestern that Melville Herskovits created in if not the first, then the most powerful and best funded African studies program in the United States, becoming the dean of African Studies and the first presi- dent of the African Studies Association.
This had already become one of the first racially integrated philanthropic universities by the end of the s. It was no coincidence that L. Dow Turner moved to Roosevelt at the end of Turner conducted research in Bahia and later in Africa, and founded the first department of African studies in the USA at Fisk, a black university, soon after returning from his research in Bahia in see Sansone Turner moved to Roosevelt and Chicago, as he admitted, after becoming tired of the segregation in Tennessee.
At Roosevelt University, the best-known black anthropologist St. Clair Drake had been trying for a while to develop African studies Gershernhorn and Together with Turner, with little funding available for actual research in Africa, he took advantage of the stay of various African students in Chicago to invite them to give seminars and lectures to students, many of whom were African-American. Mondlane was one of these young Africans.
In he also gave classes in African studies at the Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois — on the northern outskirts of Chicago. In this second case Mondlane once again benefitted from the Methodist Church net- work, to which the Seminary in question was associated. The interesting biography of Bunche by Charles Henry mentions the fact that Patrice Lumumba himself believed in this third way for a time.
It is a shame that this detailed biography make no reference to Mondlane, with whom Bunche mist have worked closely in the Trusteeship Council, though many other African leaders appear in the work. In recent years, it has become more important in keeping a focus on topical issue on Africa in acade- mia. The lecture series was originally administered by the East African Studies Program at Syracuse University that is now dissolved. For several years, this interactive series has brought scholars, students, and the community together to discuss pertinent issues concerning Africa to the university.
There, Mondlane formed part of a team that produced various reports on African countries that had still to gain full independence. This gave him the chance to travel through Africa, especially to Cameroons and the Congo, and to meet interesting people who passed through the United Nations, including a Portuguese mis- sion composed of young people who were more open than Mondlane had anticipated But this job, which demanded secrecy and extreme discretion, involving reports to the United Nations, eventually frustrated Mondlane.
He therefore left to take up the post of senior lecturer at Syracuse University, where he gave classes on the postgraduate course in anthropology and had the freedom to travel and be absent for long periods In he resigned to move to Dar es Salaam. At Syracuse University, just as at all the other univer- sities where he worked, Mondlane left an excellent impression, so much so 25 It was during this phase that Eduardo and Janet had fairly close contacts with Adriano Moreira, Overseas Minister at the time.
The dissertation was the result of quantitative research using a questionnaire Annex 1 through which Mondlane had tested a theoretically well-supported hypothesis. This showed that Mondlane was very well versed in the writings of the most important authors of the time on the theme of racial prejudice and reference groups.
The thesis he defended is set out clearly right at the start of the introduction: In this thesis we want to test the general hypothesis that where there is a conflict between racial in-group loyalty and ethnic or national in-group loyalty, an indi- vidual will tend to allow the ethnic loyalty to override the racial one Behavioral patterns, Mondlane argued, are dictated by social situations as well as social expectations.
For example, the author continues, an American citizen who is at the same time a member of a racial group will frequently face situations in which loyalty to his own racial group could conflict with his loyalty to the United States as a nation. It could be anticipated, therefore, that in a context of conflict or war, loyalty to the nation would be stronger. In discussing this topic, Mondlane describes himself and his own experience: Mondlane adds that the terms black and white are used in the dissertation as social rather than biological entities In recent years, it has become more important in keeping a focus on topical issue on Africa in academia.
Mondlane also argues that the American black men or women inhabit two social environments, namely the racial environment defined in the most social form possible and the national environment: As a result of three centuries of differential treatment by the members of the majority group he has developed a strong in-group feeling toward people of his own race, irrespective of their national and cultural backgrounds.
Also as a citizen of the United States the American Negro has developed a strong fee- ling of love, pride for the country, and a sense of loyalty, which he shares with the members of the majority group, his fellow citizens. The research began with a pre-test, selecting twenty black students and an equal number of white students from Northwestern University itself. These informants, called judges, were given an opinion scale to complete concerning the attitudes of African-Americans in relation to their social, economic and political status. The result was a questionnaire that initially should have been administered by investigators from diverse ethnic back- grounds: When this proved impossible, the questionnaire was administered in two black colleges close to Chicago by the teachers themselves — also black.
The students were presented with four versions of the questionnaire, each one to be used to reply to questions asked by a presumed African-American, white, African or European interviewer — the idea was to measure the differences in tone and style of these four questionnaires. Initially the plan was to administer the same questionnaire in poor and black communities of Chicago, but the survey had such a large repercussion that numerous black churches and associations volunteered and began to impose conditions, such as being told the entire philosophy behind the method — but for this method to work, it was essential that the respondent not know too much about it, argued Mondlane, in line with the 28 Mondlane goes on to state the most important concept in the work will be that of social attitude, first proposed by George Herbert Mead in The survey resulted in questionnaires, of which were selected having answered all the questions.
The main conclusion was that the racial reference group was less impor- tant than the national reference group. For the black American, the racial ref- erence group played a significant role in inducing a particular response only when there was no conflict with the values affecting his or her involvement in the main reference group being an American citizen In other words, ethnocentrism national identification was found to determine atti- tudes more than racialism racial identification This attitude was even stronger among black people raised in the North of the United States, since they lived in an environment comparatively free of the racial barriers that marked the life of the black population in the South.
As was common in those days, the text is written in first person plural we and relatively free of more personal remarks. This can be noted when he writes of how in the street he is very often perceived to be African-American while in conversations he is considered and treated as an African, indeed as a foreigner, by white and black people alike.
It is not by accident that one of the questions in the questionnaire was: This personal touch is also noticeable when he refers to the question of the re- lations between men and women. Mondlane claims that the belief exists among African students that male African-Americans are closer to Africans students and Africa than female African-Americans — as we have just seen, the finding of the questionnaire would suggest the inconsistency of this belief Elsewhere Mondlane writes that mixed marriages are a polemical issue between white 29 It might be considered that this belief was integral to the behavior of the majority of African students in Chicago at the time, almost all of them men, who, creating a certain frisson in the black community, preferred to look for white partners rather than African-American women — this is a comment that I heard personally in Chicago from African-American colleagues from Northwestern University and the DuSable Museum in and Indeed one of the items of the questionnaire was included precisely to provoke discussion on this polemical question: While the American Negro may at times consider himself akin of other Negroes in other countries in the world, he may at the same time feel strongly identified with other social groupings which exclude members of the racial group to which he belongs… Just as Americans of the white race were able to engage in a number of wars against nations to which their ancestors, only a few generations back, were members, it is conceivable that American Negroes can participate in a similar activity against African Negroes or other Negroes in spite of racial affinity30 ….
It would be interesting to study the racial attitu- des of Negroes living in a country where there is less social isolation. It is likely that their national identification would be even stronger than our findings indicate 31 …. In the United States the American Negro will tend to be more and more nationalistic, as he is more and more being integrated in the various social institutions of the country. It would be interesting to study the attitu- des of the American Negroes who live in white areas in American cities…Here there is a promising field for social research.
Franklin Frazier, for whom African-Americans had not much to contribute to the emancipation of Africa, because they had developed identities and aquired skills that can be useful for the US context, but do not match the needs of Africa in the process of decolonization. The issue had intended to be a celebration of international Pan-African solidarity.
His doctoral thesis in sociology, presented in under the supervision still of Melville Herskovits, continues and widens this interest in the relation between reference group and racially determined behavior, once again exam- ined through a quantitative approach with a theoretical foundation taken pri- marily from social psychology. Once again Mondlane, who during his final years of doctoral research was already working as a consultant at the United Nations 33, initially envisaged a research study that would also be of interest to poor communities, but at the end of the day he opted to concentrate on white and black students at univer- sities in the North and South of the United States.
This time the survey group was larger, totaling collected questionnaires without any claim to statis- tical representativeness. Once again the questionnaires were administered by academic staff as part of their classroom activity. The questionnaire was ad- dressed to four groups of students: The questions centered on a thorny issue: They asked what the respondent white or black would do if he or she discovered another colleague white or black was cheating copying, for example.
The idea of cheating in an exam was something publicly condemned by everyone. However a large difference was discovered between public situations — where others also perceive the fraud — and private situations — where the respondent is the only person to perceive it. In the former case all four groups tended to condemn cheating strongly. In the latter case, especially in the South, the respondents tended to be severe with the other racial group and lenient with their own.
It was also noticeable that the students from higher-ranking schools, which tended to be from the North, were usually more severe with cheating in private too and in relation to their own racial group. Students from lower ranking schools, by contrast, tended to be more lenient with cheating, especially when practiced by a member of their own racial group. That is, as a student enters a school with high academic standards of honesty, he soo- ner or later learns to internalize the accepted values of the school to the point where they become his own. However, race or caste is important only when it is set against the background of regional or cultural traditions as part of the co- llective experience of the groups tested.
In other words, race or caste is a factor in the kind of bias noted in this study, only as it affects those individuals whose cultural traditions include a special attitude towards members of the white or Negro race, depending on the side of the racial line they belong In my view, these two conclusions will later bear on his ethno-sceptic approach to the liberation struggle of Mozambique, which could be summed up as follows: Although this article centers on the eleven years spent by Mondlane in the United States, I would like, without any claim to analytic precision, to sug- gest a number of avenues for comprehending the complexity of the biography 34 Instructor at the Department of Sociology, Roosevelt University, Chicago ; lecturer in African Studies at Garrett Theological School ; lecturer in African Affairs at New York University ; Associate on the African Seminar at Columbia University Obviously Mondlane, like all of us, ac- cumulated experiences over a period of time — in this case the years spent in the United States — that soon served in the adaptation to a later phase of his life.
I would say that we can already perceive changes in these eleven years in relation to two important questions: The experience of racism in Mozambique, South Africa, Lisbon and the United States is different, as would be expected. In relation to the latter, as he personally realized on his return in , Mondlane was able to benefit from a higher status, being one of the first very few black Mozambicans with a Ph.
This disenchantment became radicalized after his voyage to the country with Janet and their children in His short biographical note from December already registers a change in tone in relation to the anti-racist fight and the references to his African roots, although he continues to stress his pas- sion for research and academic life: My mother said this to me so many times that, even though she died when I was barely 13, I can still hear her voice ringing in my ears.
This desire to fight the white man and liberate my people was intensified after I was expelled from South Africa in It was during that year that I orga- nised the first Mozambican student union, which still exists today and whose leaders have now been put in prison by the Portuguese fascist government. I believe that because the people of Mozambique are now ready to fight for their freedom, they shall be free, no matter what the Portuguese and their imperialist allies try to impede it.
Private life is, as always, the domain of greatest complexity. In terms of radicalism, Mondlane can be said to have always been a pa- triot, in the sense of being proud of his country and willing to fight for it, but I believe that he was transformed into a nationalist, in the sense of form- ing a mental project for the nation, much later in his life, during his years in the United States. Now in both phases we can perceive the importance of his Protestant education, his religious creed and his academic training. According to the latter, the libel was published by Udenamo.
In fact, most certainly, it was published by the Secret Committee for the Reorganization of Udenamo, which was made up of Frelimo dissidents and split off very early. Mondlane was an intellectual and a political leader, therefore it is not surpris- ing that even in the obvious process of radicalization of his thought, boosted by the mounting of the independence struggle, the wording of radicalism is characterized by his intellectual sophistication. This transforms him into a sui generis humanist for whom socialism would have an increasing influence, especially later in his life.
During his stay in the United States he never lost his aplomb, a certain moderation and sobriety that, in my view, seem to characterize Mondlane: This indeed is one of the harshest criti- cisms made to him in a report by the Cuban newspaper Juventud Rebelde of May 2nd , which compares Che Guevara and Mondlane: At this point it is worth returning to some aspects of academic life in the United States.
Eduardo Mondlane took his studies very seriously, so much so that he would soon approach academic life, without ceasing to frequent Methodist churches and circles regularly. As soon as he was admitted into Northwestern University, an academic center of excellence, he joined the Ki- Kappa-Delta fraternity — which allowed him to socialize with a large number of colleagues, the vast majority white. Soon after this he joined the African Studies Association. In fact I imagine that Mondlane must have frequently been the only black student in the classroom or in meetings during these years, though this does not appear to have bothered him too much