Basketball was originally played with a soccer ball. These round balls from " association football " were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in. Whereas in American football , the lace construction proved to be advantageous for gripping and remains to this day. The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late s that Tony Hinkle , searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use.
Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the s [ citation needed ] , as manufacturing improved the ball shape. The peach baskets were used until when they were finally replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A further change was soon made, so the ball merely passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point.
Whichever team got the most points won the game. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference; it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original first game, approached Naismith after the Christmas break, in early , asking him what he intended to call his new game. Naismith replied that he hadn't thought of it because he had been focused on just getting the game started.
Mahan suggested that it be called "Naismith ball", at which he laughed, saying that a name like that would kill any game. Mahan then said, "Why not call it basketball? The game ended at 1—0; the shot was made from 25 feet 7. At the time, football was being played with 10 to a team which was increased to When winter weather got too icy to play football, teams were taken indoors, and it was convenient to have them split in half and play basketball with five on each side.
By — teams of five became standard. By , it was well established at several women's high schools. While the YMCA was responsible for initially developing and spreading the game, within a decade it discouraged the new sport, as rough play and rowdy crowds began to detract from the YMCA's primary mission. However, other amateur sports clubs, colleges, and professional clubs quickly filled the void. The first pro league, the National Basketball League, was formed in to protect players from exploitation and to promote a less rough game. This league only lasted five years. James Naismith was instrumental in establishing college basketball.
Naismith's disciple Amos Alonzo Stagg brought basketball to the University of Chicago , while Adolph Rupp , a student of Naismith's at Kansas, enjoyed great success as coach at the University of Kentucky. On February 9, , the first intercollegiate 5-on-5 game was played at Hamline University between Hamline and the School of Agriculture, which was affiliated with the University of Minnesota. McGill won 9—7 in overtime; the score was 7—7 at the end of regulation play, and a ten-minute overtime period settled the outcome. A good turnout of spectators watched the game. The first men's national championship tournament, the National Association of Intercollegiate Basketball tournament, which still exists as the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics NAIA tournament , was organized in College basketball was rocked by gambling scandals from to , when dozens of players from top teams were implicated in match fixing and point shaving.
Before widespread school district consolidation, most American high schools were far smaller than their present-day counterparts. During the first decades of the 20th century, basketball quickly became the ideal interscholastic sport due to its modest equipment and personnel requirements. In the days before widespread television coverage of professional and college sports, the popularity of high school basketball was unrivaled in many parts of America. Perhaps the most legendary of high school teams was Indiana's Franklin Wonder Five , which took the nation by storm during the s, dominating Indiana basketball and earning national recognition.
Today virtually every high school in the United States fields a basketball team in varsity competition. In the —17 season, , boys and girls represented their schools in interscholastic basketball competition, according to the National Federation of State High School Associations. There is currently no tournament to determine a national high school champion. The most serious effort was the National Interscholastic Basketball Tournament at the University of Chicago from to The event was organized by Amos Alonzo Stagg and sent invitations to state champion teams.
The tournament started out as a mostly Midwest affair but grew. In it had 29 state champions. Faced with opposition from the National Federation of State High School Associations and North Central Association of Colleges and Schools that bore a threat of the schools losing their accreditation the last tournament was in The organizations said they were concerned that the tournament was being used to recruit professional players from the prep ranks.
The basis for the champion dwindled after when Brown v.
Board of Education began an integration of schools. The last tournaments were held at Alabama State College from to Teams abounded throughout the s. There were hundreds of men's professional basketball teams in towns and cities all over the United States, and little organization of the professional game. Players jumped from team to team and teams played in armories and smoky dance halls.
Leagues came and went. Barnstorming squads such as the Original Celtics and two all-African American teams, the New York Renaissance Five "Rens" and the still existing Harlem Globetrotters played up to two hundred games a year on their national tours. By the s, basketball had become a major college sport, thus paving the way for a growth of interest in professional basketball.
In , a basketball hall of fame was founded in Springfield , Massachusetts, site of the first game. Its rosters include the names of great players, coaches, referees and people who have contributed significantly to the development of the game. The hall of fame has people who have accomplished many goals in their career in basketball. Today the NBA is the top professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries, talent, and level of competition.
As of the —18 season, the G League has 26 teams. At this time, the organization only oversaw amateur players. Men's basketball was first included at the Berlin Summer Olympics , although a demonstration tournament was held in The United States defeated Canada in the first final, played outdoors. This competition has usually been dominated by the United States, whose team has won all but three titles.
The first of these came in a controversial final game in Munich in against the Soviet Union, in which the ending of the game was replayed three times until the Soviet Union finally came out on top. Women's basketball was added to the Olympics in , which were held in Montreal , Quebec, Canada with teams such as the Soviet Union , Brazil and Australia rivaling the American squads.
Prior to the Summer Olympics , only European and South American teams were allowed to field professionals in the Olympics. The United States' dominance continued with the introduction of the original Dream Team. In the Athens Olympics , the United States suffered its first Olympic loss while using professional players, falling to Puerto Rico in a point loss and Lithuania in group games, and being eliminated in the semifinals by Argentina.
It eventually won the bronze medal defeating Lithuania, finishing behind Argentina and Italy.
Worldwide, basketball tournaments are held for boys and girls of all age levels. The global popularity of the sport is reflected in the nationalities represented in the NBA. Players from all six inhabited continents currently play in the NBA. It was founded as a "rebellion" of several teams from the now-defunct Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association, which was tightly controlled by the Basketball Association of the Philippines now defunct , the then-FIBA recognized national association.
The NBL is Australia's pre-eminent men's professional basketball league. The league commenced in , playing a winter season April—September and did so until the completion of the 20th season in The —99 season, which commenced only months later, was the first season after the shift to the current summer season format October—April.
This shift was an attempt to avoid competing directly against Australia's various football codes. It features 8 teams from around Australia and one in New Zealand. The Women's National Basketball League began in Women's basketball began in at Smith College when Senda Berenson , a physical education teacher, modified Naismith's rules for women. Shortly after she was hired at Smith, she went to Naismith to learn more about the game. Spalding 's first Women's Basketball Guide.
By , the game had spread to colleges across the country, including Wellesley , Vassar , and Bryn Mawr. The first intercollegiate women's game was on April 4, Stanford women played Berkeley , 9-on-9, ending in a 2—1 Stanford victory. Women's basketball development was more structured than that for men in the early years. The International Women's Sports Federation included a women's basketball competition. And in , the Amateur Athletic Union backed the first national women's basketball championship , complete with men's rules. The Grads toured all over North America, and were exceptionally successful.
They posted a record of wins and only 20 losses over that span, as they met any team that wanted to challenge them, funding their tours from gate receipts. The Grads' players were unpaid, and had to remain single. The Grads' style focused on team play, without overly emphasizing skills of individual players. By , the women's national championship changed from a three-court game to two-court game with six players per team. Though it had shaky attendance figures, several marquee players Lisa Leslie , Diana Taurasi , and Candace Parker among others have helped the league's popularity and level of competition.
Other professional women's basketball leagues in the United States, such as the American Basketball League —98 , have folded in part because of the popularity of the WNBA. The WNBA has been looked at by many as a niche league. However, the league has recently taken steps forward.
The new television deal ran from to Along with this deal, came the first ever rights fees to be paid to a women's professional sports league. Over the eight years of the contract, "millions and millions of dollars" were "dispersed to the league's teams. We're losing a lot of money among a large number of teams. We're budgeting the WNBA to break even this year. Measurements and time limits discussed in this section often vary among tournaments and organizations; international and NBA rules are used in this section. The object of the game is to outscore one's opponents by throwing the ball through the opponents' basket from above while preventing the opponents from doing so on their own.
An attempt to score in this way is called a shot. A successful shot is worth two points, or three points if it is taken from beyond the three-point arc 6. The time allowed is actual playing time; the clock is stopped while the play is not active. Therefore, games generally take much longer to complete than the allotted game time, typically about two hours. Five players from each team may be on the court at one time.
Teams also have a coach, who oversees the development and strategies of the team, and other team personnel such as assistant coaches, managers, statisticians, doctors and trainers. For both men's and women's teams, a standard uniform consists of a pair of shorts and a jersey with a clearly visible number, unique within the team, printed on both the front and back. Players wear high-top sneakers that provide extra ankle support. Typically, team names, players' names and, outside of North America, sponsors are printed on the uniforms.
A limited number of time-outs, clock stoppages requested by a coach or sometimes mandated in the NBA for a short meeting with the players, are allowed. They generally last no longer than one minute seconds in the NBA unless, for televised games, a commercial break is needed. The game is controlled by the officials consisting of the referee referred to as crew chief in the NBA , one or two umpires referred to as referees in the NBA and the table officials. For college, the NBA, and many high schools, there are a total of three referees on the court.
The table officials are responsible for keeping track of each teams scoring, timekeeping, individual and team fouls , player substitutions, team possession arrow , and the shot clock. The only essential equipment in a basketball game is the ball and the court: Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks, score sheets, scoreboard s , alternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clock systems.
A regulation basketball court in international games is At almost all levels of competition, the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet 3.
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While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard, it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height — a rim that is off by just a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting. The size of the basketball is also regulated. For men, the official ball is If women are playing, the official basketball size is In 3x3 , a formalized version of the halfcourt 3-on-3 game, a dedicated ball with the circumference of a size 6 ball but the weight of a size 7 ball is used in all competitions men's, women's, and mixed teams.
The ball may be advanced toward the basket by being shot, passed between players, thrown, tapped, rolled or dribbled bouncing the ball while running. The ball must stay within the court; the last team to touch the ball before it travels out of bounds forfeits possession. The ball is out of bounds if it touches a boundary line, or touches any player or object that is out of bounds. There are limits placed on the steps a player may take without dribbling, which commonly results in an infraction known as traveling. Nor may a player stop his dribble and then resume dribbling. A dribble that touches both hands is considered stopping the dribble, giving this infraction the name double dribble.
Within a dribble, the player cannot carry the ball by placing his hand on the bottom of the ball; doing so is known as carrying the ball. A team, once having established ball control in the front half of their court, may not return the ball to the backcourt and be the first to touch it. A violation of these rules results in loss of possession. The ball may not be kicked, nor be struck with the fist.
For the offense, a violation of these rules results in loss of possession; for the defense, most leagues reset the shot clock and the offensive team is given possession of the ball out of bounds. There are limits imposed on the time taken before progressing the ball past halfway 8 seconds in FIBA and the NBA; 10 seconds in NCAA and high school for both sexes , before attempting a shot 24 seconds in FIBA, the NBA, and U Sports Canadian universities play for both sexes, and 30 seconds in NCAA play for both sexes , holding the ball while closely guarded 5 seconds , and remaining in the restricted area known as the free-throw lane, or the " key " 3 seconds.
These rules are designed to promote more offense. Basket interference , or goaltending is a violation charged when a player illegally interferes with a shot. This violation is incurred when a player touches the ball on its downward trajectory to the basket, unless it is obvious that the ball has no chance of entering the basket, if a player touches the ball while it is in the rim, or in the area extended upwards from the basket, or if a player reaches through the basket to interfere with the shot.
When a defensive player is charged with goaltending, the basket is awarded. If an offensive player commits the infraction, the basket is cancelled. In either case possession of the ball is turned over to the defensive team. An attempt to unfairly disadvantage an opponent through certain types of physical contact is illegal and is called a personal foul. These are most commonly committed by defensive players; however, they can be committed by offensive players as well.
Players who are fouled either receive the ball to pass inbounds again, or receive one or more free throws if they are fouled in the act of shooting, depending on whether the shot was successful. One point is awarded for making a free throw, which is attempted from a line 15 feet 4. The referee is responsible for judging whether contact is illegal, sometimes resulting in controversy. The calling of fouls can vary between games, leagues and referees. There is a second category of fouls called technical fouls , which may be charged for various rules violations including failure to properly record a player in the scorebook, or for unsportsmanlike conduct.
These infractions result in one or two free throws, which may be taken by any of the five players on the court at the time. Repeated incidents can result in disqualification. A blatant foul involving physical contact that is either excessive or unnecessary is called an intentional foul flagrant foul in the NBA. In FIBA, a foul resulting in ejection is called a disqualifying foul, while in leagues other than the NBA, such a foul is referred to as flagrant. If a team exceeds a certain limit of team fouls in a given period quarter or half — four for NBA, NCAA women's, and international games — the opposing team is awarded one or two free throws on all subsequent non-shooting fouls for that period, the number depending on the league.
In the US college men's game and high school games for both sexes, if a team reaches 7 fouls in a half, the opposing team is awarded one free throw, along with a second shot if the first is made. This is called shooting "one-and-one". If a team exceeds 10 fouls in the half, the opposing team is awarded two free throws on all subsequent fouls for the half.
When a team shoots foul shots, the opponents may not interfere with the shooter, nor may they try to regain possession until the last or potentially last free throw is in the air. After a team has committed a specified number of fouls, the other team is said to be "in the bonus". On scoreboards, this is usually signified with an indicator light reading "Bonus" or "Penalty" with an illuminated directional arrow or dot indicating that team is to receive free throws when fouled by the opposing team.
Some scoreboards also indicate the number of fouls committed. If a team misses the first shot of a two-shot situation, the opposing team must wait for the completion of the second shot before attempting to reclaim possession of the ball and continuing play. If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is unsuccessful, the player is awarded a number of free throws equal to the value of the attempted shot. A player fouled while attempting a regular two-point shot thus receives two shots, and a player fouled while attempting a three-point shot receives three shots.
If a player is fouled while attempting a shot and the shot is successful, typically the player will be awarded one additional free throw for one point. In combination with a regular shot, this is called a "three-point play" or "four-point play" or more colloquially, an "and one" because of the basket made at the time of the foul 2 or 3 points and the additional free throw 1 point. Although the rules do not specify any positions whatsoever, they have evolved as part of basketball.
During the early years of basketball's evolution, two guards, two forwards, and one center were used. In more recent times specific positions evolved, but the current trend, advocated by many top coaches including Mike Krzyzewski is towards positionless basketball, where big guys are free to shoot from outside and dribble if their skill allows it.
Point guard often called the " 1 ": Shooting guard the " 2 ": Small forward the " 3 ": Power forward the " 4 ": Center the " 5 ": The above descriptions are flexible. For most teams today, the shooting guard and small forward have very similar responsibilities and are often called the wings , as do the power forward and center, who are often called post players.
While most teams describe two players as guards, two as forwards, and one as a center, on some occasions teams choose to call them by different designations.
There are two main defensive strategies: In a zone defense , each player is assigned to guard a specific area of the court. Zone defenses often allow the defense to double team the ball, a manoeuver known as a trap. In a man-to-man defense , each defensive player guards a specific opponent. Offensive plays are more varied, normally involving planned passes and movement by players without the ball.
A quick movement by an offensive player without the ball to gain an advantageous position is known as a cut. A legal attempt by an offensive player to stop an opponent from guarding a teammate, by standing in the defender's way such that the teammate cuts next to him, is a screen or pick. The two plays are combined in the pick and roll , in which a player sets a pick and then "rolls" away from the pick towards the basket.
Screens and cuts are very important in offensive plays; these allow the quick passes and teamwork, which can lead to a successful basket. Teams almost always have several offensive plays planned to ensure their movement is not predictable. On court, the point guard is usually responsible for indicating which play will occur. Shooting is the act of attempting to score points by throwing the ball through the basket, methods varying with players and situations.
Typically, a player faces the basket with both feet facing the basket. A player will rest the ball on the fingertips of the dominant hand the shooting arm slightly above the head, with the other hand supporting the side of the ball. The ball is usually shot by jumping though not always and extending the shooting arm. The shooting arm, fully extended with the wrist fully bent, is held stationary for a moment following the release of the ball, known as a follow-through.
Players often try to put a steady backspin on the ball to absorb its impact with the rim. The ideal trajectory of the shot is somewhat controversial, but generally a proper arc is recommended. Players may shoot directly into the basket or may use the backboard to redirect the ball into the basket. The two most common shots that use the above described setup are the set shot and the jump shot. The set shot is taken from a standing position, with neither foot leaving the floor, typically used for free throws, and in other circumstances while the jump shot is taken in mid-air, the ball released near the top of the jump.
This provides much greater power and range, and it also allows the player to elevate over the defender. Failure to release the ball before the feet return to the floor is considered a traveling violation. Another common shot is called the lay-up. This shot requires the player to be in motion toward the basket, and to "lay" the ball "up" and into the basket, typically off the backboard the backboard-free, underhand version is called a finger roll.
The most crowd-pleasing and typically highest-percentage accuracy shot is the slam dunk , in which the player jumps very high and throws the ball downward, through the basket while touching it. Free Newsletter Developing Skills Shooting How to Choose the Best Offense for Your Basketball Team Several factors come into play when a basketball coach is faced in selecting the best offense for his team. Foremost consideration must be given to the players at hand. Will your team be composed of tall, or short, quick, or slow, good, average, or poor ball handlers. He must select the system and adapt the good parts to fit his, or her, own philosophy.
Keep in mind that you must get the most out of the players who try out for your team. The coach should never use players at a position where they show no ability. He should assign duties that best utilize the abilities of each player. The offense should keep the best rebounders in position to rebound, and the good shooters should take the most shots. All the others should understand proper screening technique to be able to screen for the better shooters. Each candidate's ability to hit the bucket will determine the type of shot each player be allowed to take.
Practice makes perfect; therefore, you accomplish this using: A coach should always be a student of the game. He should read basketball books, magazines and attend clinics. From this constant learning process, he can adapt any new tactic that fits his personnel. Offenses that I have seen, or read about, are rarely original.
Odds are good that a popular offense ten years from now, will be an adaptation of something used twenty years ago. Know the abilities and talents of your personnel before choosing a system. More players made coaches than coaches made players. Personnel at Hand Find the best combination of players as quickly as possible. Coaches should practice their five best players together as a unit as soon as their greater ability becomes apparent. Usually, two or three subs are needed in most teams to operate at their highest efficiency.
You will need changes at the center position, the forward position, and the guard position. These subs must have as much practice time and game time as possible. This allows them to better harmonize their movements with the starters. What Type of Offense Suits the Personnel?
In reality, there are only two types of offenses: