Entomologen und En- tomo-Museologie 3 parts. Serie I Die Welt-Literatur: A biologia no Brasil, pp. Companhia Editora Nacional, Sao Paulo. Historia das expedifocs cicntt[icas no Brasil, pp. Plants and plant sciences in Latin America, pp. Notae biographicae percgrinatorum Indiac Occidcntalis botanico- rum, in his Symbolae Antillanae 3 1 Vitae itineraque collectorum botanicorum, notae collaboratorum biographicae, Florae Brasiliae ratio edendi chronologica, systema, index familiarum, in C. Flora Brasi- liensis, enumeratio plantarum hactcnus detectarum quas suis alio- rumque botanicorum studiis descriptas ct methodo naturali digestas partim icones illustratas 7 I CX -f -f 31 pp.
Indice dos toponimos contidos na Carta do Brasil 1: E , vi -f- pp. After primary studies in Vaxio, Linnaeus went to the University of Lund The Swedish universi- ties at that time were passing through a severe financial crisis; the poor pay of the teachers was reflected in the quality of the lectures, and the students greatly suffered with the system. In Lund, the only place where Linnaeus could learn something was the library of Professor Kilian Stobaeus.
During the night, with the help of a servant of Stobaeus, Linneaeus entered the library, and took books to study, promising they would be returned ne. When Stobaeus discovered the fact, he not only opened the library to the young student, but gave him also full support. Soon afterwards Linnaeus moved to Uppsala, where he found the protection of two leading scientists, Olof Rudbeck and Olof Celsius. Here Linnaeus' fame began to grow with his first revo- lutionary botanical publications. During that time he lived in Rudbeck's house, as preceptor of his sons.
After his first successes in Uppsala, Linnaeus was commissio- ned by the University to undertake an e. In the meantime, Linnaeus' situation was indefinite — half- -student, half-teacher,and simultaneously a travelling naturalist, the years were passing rapidly, and he neither obtained his grade nor abandoned the University to start on a career. As it was not obligatory to obtain a degree in the same university where one had studied, Linnaeus decided to go to a foreign university, having at the same time the chance to travel abroad.
Before leaving Sweden, he went to Dalarna, where at the house of Johan Moraeus he had previously met the girl whom he would eventually marry — Sarah Elisabeth Moraeus. Her father financed Lin- naeus' studies in Holland. In , Linnaeus sailed from Helsingborg, in the south of Sweden, for Liibeck, proceeding overland to Hamburg, where he remained for some time. Aboard a sailing ship he went to Ams- terdam, but the cruise took 16 days due to contrary winds. Upon arriving in Holland he immediately headed for the small town of Hardewijk, in Gelderland, where there was a university much favoured by medical students.
In the same day of his arrival Linnaeus passed the examinations for the medical course. On 24 June of the same year he received the title of "Doctor Mcdicinae", having defended the thesis De Hypothesis nova de [ebrium inter- mitentium causa. After that he decided to remain in the Netherlands for a while, and entered the University of Leyden.
Gronovius and Isaac Lowson.
Through the intercession of Hermann Boerhaave, Linnaeus obtained the post of private doctor to George Clifford, the owner of a rich botanical and zoological garden at Hartecamp, between Leyden and Haarlem. There Linnaeus remained stu- dying the natural productions. In the "Hortus Cliffortianus" he completed a manuscript which was printed in with the help of Gronovius and Lowson.
The resulting booklet, with only 13 pages, devised a new system of classification and was destined to cause a revolution in the biological sciences — it was the Systema Naturae. By the end of Linnaeus decided to return to Sweden, and left the gardens of Clifford. On his arrival to Leyden, ho- wever, he was persuaded by Boerhaave and Gronovius to remain a little longer in the Netherlands, so that he left the country only in May In the middle of the summer of he arrived in Sweden.
The situation of the universities had not changed, and he could not get a position as a teacher. Hence he decided to live as a practicing doctor in Stockholm. Soon he became widely known as an excellent professional, and started making money. Now he was able to marry Sarah Elisabeth Moraeus, who had patiently waited for his return; the marriage was performed in June In that same year he founded the "Svenska Vetenskaps Akade- mien", and was its first president.
In Olof Rudbeck died, aged 80, and Linnaeus applied for the chair of botany and anatomy, left vacant. Nils Rosen, was the winner. At the same time the chair of practical medicine was also left vacant on account of the reti- rement of Roberg. As he pre- ferred the chair of botany to that of m. Linnaeus could finally develop all his capacities as a resear- cher and a teacher. During the Dutch invasion of Brazil in the 17th century, Georg Marcgrave had studied the peculiar fauna of that colony, publishing in his Historiae rerum naturalium Brasi- liae; his companion Wilhelm Piso had also discovered several secrets of the nature of that region, explained in his De Indiae utriusque re naturali et medica From the distant colony of Surinam, Madame Maria Sybilla Merian had brought to Hol- land magnificent insects, reproduced in superb coloured plates in her Metamorphoses insectorum Surinamensium These and other books, which excited the imagination of learned Europe, have certainly influenced Linnaeus, who eagerly Wanted to send some of his disciples to those mysterious regions.
Linnaeus' wish would be satisfied in consequence of a treaty between the Kingdoms of Spain and Portugal, which shared, and zealously guarded, the South American continent. To the north, in the Amazonian region, the frontiers were demarcated between several regions, one of the difficult points being the dividing line between the rivers Negro and Orinoco.
The same Treaty also established two commissions, respon- sible for a thorough study of the regions involved and for the de- marcation of the northern frontiers, as both Kingdoms were very much concerned with the expansion of the French, English, and especially the Dutch, in the Guianas. In October , he headed for the Rio Negro to wait there for his Spanish counter- part. Mendonqa Furtado was accompanied by no less than persons, among them physicians, astronomers, geographers. Established in Mariua presently Barcelos, State of Amazonas. Brazil , he waited in vain for the arrival of the Spanish commission and returned to Belem in Serrano.
Among them was one of Linnaeus' disciples, P. He went to the University of Uppsala in to study natural history under Linnaeus, being one of his favorite disciples. As in the King of Spain had requested the presence of one of Linnaeus' students to investigate the flora of his Kingdom, Loefling —who had already finished his courses and received his doctor's degree — was invited and gladly accepted. Loefling at observera uti Spanskariket"; see Anon. Loefling left Stockholm on 16 May Two months later he landed in Oporto, Portugal, and proceeded to Lisbon, where he met Louis Goudin, one of the members of La Condamine's ex- pedition to South America, back in Europe after 16 years of ab- sence.
Loefling and Goudin travelled to Madrid, arriving on 20 October Loefling started collecting plants in Madrid and its neighbor- hood, assembhng more than 1, specimens. He was planning to follow on a botanical trip to the Pyrenees, but was officialy invi- ted to join the scientific staff of Don Joseph de Iturriaga's e. This was a most rare and welcome opportunity to study the natural productions of the Spanish possessions in South Ame- rica, and Loefling promptly accepted.
Two young medical doc- tors interested in natural sciences, Benito Pastor and Antonio Condal, and two artists, Juan de Dios Castel and Bruno de Sal- vador y Carmona, would assist him in his scientific works. The members of the expedition sailed from Cadiz aboard the frigate "Santa Ana", on 15 February Ib; now in the State of Anzoa- tegui , arriving on 25 July. From there he retur- ned to Barcelona, passing again by Piritu.
On 19 September he was back at Cumana see Map I. There he rested until De- cember, recovering from a fever caught at Piritu. Cumana on 17 December , Loefling arrived in Leaving the nextday at Barcelona, where he stayed until 8 January , making two excursions in the meantime to the "quinta" small farm of Miguel Roxas, on the 20th and 24th of December On 21 March he received a letter from Iturriaga with orders to abandon that region designated by "Mi- siones de Piritu" and proceed to the Orinoco. Loefling started for that river, but the route he took is very difficult to trace, since, due to his sickness, the notes are very sparse and incomplete.
From that point on, the route he took is unknown. The next names appearing in his writings are Cupapui NB- , c , Altagracia NC, a , Suay locality unknown to me , and some others, all situated to the south of the confluen- ce of the rivers Caroni and Orinoco. During his stay in the Mission of Santa Eulalia de Muru- curi locality unknow-n Loefling suffered several attacks of in- termitent fevers, followed by a Leucophlegmatia, and finally a Hydrops anasarca, in the words of Linnaeus Anon.
Loefling was transported to the Mission of Santo Antonio de Caroni? San Antonio, NB, d , dying there on 22 February He was buried under an orange tree, near the church of the mission, wrapped in his own clothes. There they were copied by one of the mem- bers of the Swedish Legation, Daniel Scheidenburg, who sent the manuscripts to Linnaeus, who edited and published them in Lcefling's original manuscripts are still preserved in the archives of the Jardin Botanico de Madrid.
Dahlberg and Rolander In two other collectors arrived in South America: Carl Gustav Dahlberg was born in Nykoping. In , during the Finnish war, he served as a gunner in the Swedish army; in the same year he took part in the de- fense of Stockholm during the Dalecarlian revolt. He went to Surinam as a corporal in the Dutch forces, arri- ving there probably at the end of with a letter of recommen- dation to the Governor General, J.
On 3 May , Dahlberg was promoted to the rank of sublieutenant; he left the service on March While in Surinam, he married Johanna Catharina Bedloo. From 19 November to 5 Fe- bruary before his departure for Europe , he filled the impor- tant position of "Raad van Policie en Crimineele Justitie" coun- cillor of police and criminal justice. Eventually he obtained the military rank of lieutenant-colonel.
By that time he had probably become acquainted with Linnaeus. He returned to Surinam in , ta- lking Daniel Rolander with him. They visited Holland and Sweden: The family returned to Surinam on 20 March On 11 May , Dahlberg and his wife went on a third trip to Europe; they stayed in Amsterdam and returned to Surinam on 9 July He never left Surinam again and died in Paramaribo in the afternoon of 6 September Also Dahlberg brought collections to Sweden. Dahlberg's collections later went into the cabinet of King Gustav Adolf IV, including the donation, and are at present preserved in the Zoological Institute of Uppsala University.
Dahlberg also appears to have donated Surinam materials to Empress Catherina of Russia, who in presented them to the St. Petersburg Museum Holthuis, Dahlberg's companion, Daniel Rolander, was born in Smaaland, Sweden, in He studied at the University of Uppsala, where Linnaeus showed his great confidence in Rolan- der by employing him as the private tutor of Carolus Linnaeus Jr.
During the ten years of his stay in Uppsala, Rolander pu- blished several entomological papers in the transactions of the Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien Skjutflugan, ; Siktbiet. His trip was financed partly by Linnaeus, partly by the famous entomologist Baron De Geer. The unrest caused by the revolt of the escaped negro slaves prevented him from penetrating deeper into the interior.
He seems to have given most of his attention to botany, but collected many animals as well. His health became undermined by fever, aggravated by the fact that, according to the prevailing ideas about fever cures, he had to drink more alcoholic beverages than he was used to in his native country. Later, because of his poor health, he could not find the necessary strength to get rid of the drinking habit.
On his way home Rolander sailed to the Island of St. Eus- tatius NE, b. He stayed for ten days on the island, arranging his collections and gathering additional specimens. He reached Stockholm via Amsterdam on 2 October His collections were excellent, and he had kept a diary with many careful notes. After a stay of some years in Sweden, Rolander Went to Copenhagen. Here he sold a part of his herbarium to Professor Friis Rottboll. His diary, bearing the title "Diarium Surinamense, itinere exotica conscripsit Daniel Rolander" , was acquired by C.
Kratzenstein, who tried in vain to get it pu- blished. The Latin manuscript is now kept in the Botanical Cen- tral Library in Copenhagen, and consists of a large folio with about pages. An article from this diary was published by F. Schau took care of him. Strussenfelt ins- tructed him to make an inventory of the animals and plants of the Island of Hveen, in the Sound, but the list produced was of very poor quality. After the death of Schau and the departure of Strussenfelt, Rolander went to Lund, where he lived, ill and in the greatest poverty, until his death in Holthuis, Linnaeus described the following species collected by Rolan- der in the tenth edition of the Systema Naturae: Other species described by Linnaeus in from the "Museum De Geer and probably collected either by Dahlberg or Rolander, are Musca illucens and Musca aequinotialis.
Linnaeus had made the University of Uppsala the most famous center of natural history in Europe. His poor health, and a certain shyness prevented him from reaching the fame enjoyed by his father. He was happy with being an erudite and honest teacher, who consecrated his whole time to lectures and to the curatorship of the Royal Cabinet of Natural History. Linnaeus only paper published on zoology was the des- Jr.
In this letter it is said that in Peru existed a fly which laid its eggs transported on its abdomen on the human skin, the worms and remaining there for half a year; if left penetrating it. The story seemed so fantastic to Linnaeus Jr. On 10 January , Linnaeus died. In his last will he had directed that his collections should be sold for the benefit of his daughters: He gave his library to his son, who, after having paid his sisters for their share of the collections, re- mained the sole owner of the scientific collections and library.
After many disputes with his family, Linnaeus Jr. The letter was received by Banks at a social meeting where a certain Mr. James Edward Smith was present. Although only 24 years old, Smith was the owner of a conside- rable fortune. Knowing the great value of Linnaeus' collections, and at the instance of Banks, Smith offered 1. Two other offers were made one by Baron von Alstroe- — mer, and another by a Russian nobleman, authorized by Empress Catherina of Russia to offer an unlimited price for Linnaeus' collections. Smith's proposal, however, was accepted, and the price of guineas was agreed upon, Linnaeus Jr's own herbarium being e.
The ship "Appearance" carried Linnaeus' colections to England in 26 large bo. The total cost of this acquisition, including all expenses of transpor- tation, was 1, guineas and 5 shillings. The collections re- mained with Smith until his death, being afterwards bought by the Linnean Society of London, where they are still kept Hoehne, Refe rences Anony mous Homenaje a Carlos Linnco en el segundo centenario dc su nacimiento, Ueber die Rcinigung dcs Wassers durch Muckcnlarvcn.
A tentative annotated bibliography of Dcmatobia hominis Lin- naeus Jr. Paulo 1 14 4 , 2 pis. Librairie Orientate et Americaine E. Handro, O ]ardim Botanico de Sao Paulo, pp. Sijstcma naturae per regna tria naturae. Plantac americanae, pp. Instituto Ibero-Americano de Gotcm- burgo, Suecia. Introduction and notes by Stig Rydcn. Hisforiae rcrum naturaHum Brasiliae Libri vill, -f pp.
Svcnska odcn i Sydamcrika, pp. Dc Indiac utriusque rc naturali ct mcdica libri xiv, pp. Pedro Loetl ing cn Venezuela , pp. Insti- tuto Ibero-Americano de Gotcmburgo, Suecia. The Island of Tahiti was finally chosen as the most appropriate for the operation. The Royal Society submitted to His Majesty the King of c-ngland, in, a petition for an expedition.
In April, the Secretary of the Admiralty advised the Society that the ton ship, the Endeavour", was ready to sail, under the command of Captain James Cook, whose knowledge both of astronomy and navigation Was highly commendable. After loading with food stores and ammunition, the ship sailed for Plymouth. Then, in the middle of August, when the naturalists of the expedition, Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander were aboard, she sailed for the Southern Sea.
His degree in father's death in left him the master of a great fortune, which he employed in the study of natural sciences. Banks studied the works of Linnaeus and Buffon assiduously, made an exten- sive herbarium of the British flora, and built one of the largest and most famous libraries of natural history in Europe. In he went on a collecting trip to Newfoundland and Labrador.
En- couraged by his success on that trip, he joined Cook's expedition, contributing financialy toit, and bringing with him two artists, Parkinson and Buchan, to draw landscapes and natural history specimens. Upon his return to England, Banks was elected fel- low of the Royal Society, being made its President in He was knighted in , and made a member of the French Acade- my of Sciences in He studied medicine at the University of Uppsala in ; in he explored the Alps of Lapland and visited the regions between Archangelsk and St.
Petersburg, and also collected in the Canary Islands. Coming to England in , he arranged the Museum of Portland, composed the catalogue of the collections of the Bri- tish Museum, and was appointed assistant librarian of in the same He joined Cook's expedition as naturalist, institution. When he returned to England, he served as secretary to Sir Joseph Banks, and in made another journey, this time to Iceland.
In he was made curator of the British Museum. He died on 13 May in London. The "Endeavour", after short stops at Madeira, Tcneriffe.
Banks and Solander were anxious to collect in the neighborhood of the city, but the Viceroy, D. Several misunderstandings happened between Cook and the Viceroy, and only on the 26th Mr. Banks, after artfully eluding the vigilance of the Viceroy's guards, went ashore, making collections of natural history, with which he re- turned to the ship. On the previous day, a monk had asked for a surgeon of the ship, and Solander had thus the occasion to land. They stayed there until 8 December 1 , when the "Endeavour" sailed for Cape Horn.
On January , they passed the Falkland Islands. Banks and Solander went ashore for a few hours, and returned with more than one hundred different plants and flowers. Monkhouse, the astronomer Mr. Green, the artist Mr. Buchan, several other peo- ple, and accompanied by servants, went ashore for a botanical exploration. Although they were able to collect several plants, the expedition was hampered by the tremendous cold of those antarctic regions, and its members almost froze to death. But finally they were able to return to the "Endeavour" on the 17th. On the 20th the naturalists made another excursion into the coun- try, collecting plants and molluscs, and went to visit an Indian village.
Richard In Necker and Castries desired to send to French Guia- na a man able to study the botany of that colony and find new plants that might prove useful to agriculture. His family was traditionally interested in botany, and his father, Claude Richard, was head of the Royal Gardens at Auteuil. Young Richard could draw excellently and also knew Greek and Latin. The Archbishop of Paris, M. This proposal, however, did not interest Richard. This so scandalized his father, that he banished him from home. The beauty and accuracy of his drawings not only gua- ranteed his survival, but gave him a decent living and enabled him to accumulate 80, livres.
In Paris he attended the lectures at the College de France and at the Jardindu Roi, and was soon known as a skilled bo- tanist. His nomination to go to French Guiana met with the approval of King Louis XVI, who personally showed him a chart worthy of investigation, rivers of that possession, indicating points to be mapped, etc. In he had the opportunity of going to Belem SA, lc; SA, ld , in Brazil, where he gathered several species of plants to be introduced into Cayenne.
Tortola NE, lSb , St. John NE, b , St. He made extensive collections of plants, animals, and minerals, and excellent drawings of objects of natu- ral history. Meanwhile, in France, the Revolution had begun. Richard, due to his relations with MinisterNecker, was in a difficult position as royal botanist, and had some misunderstandings with the go- vernor of Cayenne.
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He decided then to return to France, although very uncertain as to what he would encounter there. Helanded at Le Havre. Because of the upset political si- tuation he was not reimbursed for the great expenses made du- ring his voyages, which had been paid out of his own savings, and had to return to the same way of living as draftsman, until , when Fourcroy, estabhshing the School of Medicine, made him professor of botany.
He died on 7 June , at the age of 67, "d'un catarre sur la vessie" Cuvier, ; Urban. Richard, membre de que son zele pour I'avancement de I'his- I'lnstitut, et toire naturelle conduisit dans les retraites presque inacessibles de la Guyane franqoise, y avoit ramasse en peu de temps, et quoique ses recherches ne fussent que secondaires, pres de six mille es- peces d'insectcs" italics mine.
Amanuscript with Richard's observations made in St. Croix and St. Thomas is preserved in Paris. He had been successively musketeer, "avocat" in the Paris Parliament , and "receveur general dcs domaines et des bois" in Picardy, Flanders and Artois, when, in , he decided to devote himself to the study of natural history. In he accompanied a black prince of Oware back to Africa, and explored as naturalist the Kingdoms of Oware and Benin, making a great collection of plants and animals.
At that time there were several rebellions on the island. On 28 March , the French "Assemblee Nationale", inspired in the principles of the Revolution, had decreed that in French co- lonies mulattoes and free negroes would have their citizenship and the same rights as the whites. The latter, who wanted to get rid of the colonial system, had refused to share their prero- gatives with the free negroes.
These revolted, with the help of the slaves, and the situation in the island was very dangerous. In spite of all, Palisot de Beauvois, who had recovered his health, collected insects in that turbulent region. It is difficult to know at present whether he collected in the French portion of the island nowadays Haiti or in the Spanish portion now the Republica Dominicana. Palisot de Beauvois was appointed, in , a member of the Superior Council of the Cape, and a member of the Second Co- lonial Assembly. This latter body sent him in to Phila- delphia, to seek help against the rebellious negroes of Santo Do- mingo.
When he returned in , the rebels imprisoned him, but a negress whom he had set free saved his life. In the same year slavery was abolished, and the Act was ratified by the French Convention of The naturalist returned then to Philadelphia, where he had to earn his living teaching music and languages. The Charge d'Affaires of France, M. Adet, obtained for him funds for a scien- tific collecting trip through North America. He returned to France in In he was appointed a member of the Institut de France, and in a member of the University Coun- cil Enc.
He filled several administrative posts "Secretaire des postes", from to , director of the same under Ro- land's ministry , but continued his studies of natural sciences. During the Terror he had to leave Paris and hide in the forest of Montmorency, becauce of his relations with Roland and the Girondins. After the 9 Thermidor 27 July with the fall of the Terror, and the execution of Robespierre, Bo.
In the New World he collected nume- rous specimens which went to enrich the works of Lacepede, La- treille. He must have collected also in Cayenne, as said by Fabricius in the "Systema Antliatorum", but this could be Fabricius' mistake. Bosc was appointed in inspector of the Gardens of Versailles, and in inspector of the Gardens under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Interior; in he re- placed Thouin as "professeur" in the Jardin des Plantes.
He was a close friend of Fabricius. He began his studies of natural history and medicine in Halle, and finished the medical studies in Copenhagen. He went to the West Indies for the first time in , as "naturalista regius", but the collections of specimens he sent to Denmark were lost at sea. His financial circumstances were strait at the time of his first visit: Croix NE, d , then a Danish pos- session. In , by order of the Government, he made a zoo- logical journey to Jamaica.
From this jour- ney he sent home a large collection of insects. During this pe- riod he also founded a botanical garden in St. He was interested in botany, especially in useful plants, and published a book on cotton Henriksen, ; Pennel, ; Zimsen, On old-preserved original la- bels from Sehestedt and Tender Lund's collections the name is spelled Schmidt. It is not certain who is meant. The only information we have, kindly supplied by Prof. Pflug and Yeats On two collectors who obtained insects for Fabricius the last we have very meager information.
Paul Gottfried Pflug went to Denmark in , became a surgeon and gave lectures in medicine to students. In he obtained his doctor degree in Kiel and in travelled to the West Indies perhaps a ship's doctor? He also travelled to Sierra Leone and China. He died in in St. Captain Cook's voyages of discovery. Everyman's Library Series, J. Journal of the Right Hon. Australia, the Dutch East Indies, etc. Angiois, en S, Gay 6 Gide, Libraires, Paris.
Premier voyage dc James Cook autour du monde, fait en S, , et , precede dcs relations de MM. Ovcrsigt over Dansk cntomologi. Bonpland, Rccueil d'observations dc zoologie et d'anafomic comparec. Notes on the types of the neotropical bees described by Fabricius Hymenoptera Apoidea. Palisot de Beauvois, A. The 3 plates for Diptera are in livraisons 3, 6, and 13]. Chronica Botanica Co, Waltham, Mass. Carnets dc notes dc voyages aux Antilles: Observations prises a Sainte-Croi. Fabricianska Hemipterarter efter de i Kopenhamn och Kiel forvarade typenexemplaren granskade och beskrifen.
Notac biographicae peregrinatorum Indiae occidcntalis botanico- rum, in his Symbolae Antillanae 3 1 Vitae itineraque collectorum botanicorum, notae collaboratorum biographicae, Florae Brasiliae ratio cdendi chronologica, systema, index familiarum, pp. Flora enumeratio plantarum hacfenus dctectarum quas suis Brasiliensis. Fabricius, was the physician appointed by the Government to that city and its county; his mother's name was Anne Henningsen; an elder bro- ther and Johann Christian were the only children they had. Fabricius learned drawing, dance, and music.
In his father's library he found Linnaeus' Species Plantarum, in which he found "pleasure in reading", and when he was fourteen or fifteen years old he made an extensive analysis of Pontoppi- dan's Natural History of Norway. In his father was appointed physician Frederik's to Hospital in Copenhagen, and sent him to Altona then in Denmark to be prepared for college. In Fabricius went to Copenhagen.
In the autumn of the same year his father sent him to Uppsala, where he remained for two years. There, he said, his "future destiny appears to have been laid" Hope, From Linnaeus he learned the "systematic order with which the study of sciences ought to be pursued", and began to study in- sects. In Uppsala he formed a friendship with Thunberg. There he laid the foundations of his "Systema Insecto- rum", and compiled the "Genera Insectorum", based on the small collection he then possessed.
In , through his father's influence, he went to Leipzig, to hear the lectures of Professor Schreber on economy. His brother went at the same time to Leyden, where Siegfried Albin was teaching anatomy. Fabricius was zealously engaged in writing his "Entomologia", and in collecting plants and insects of the neighborhood.
On his vacations he visited Freiburg and Dresden. In he went to Leyden, where he attended the lectures of Gaubius on chemistry and those of Allemand on "natural phi- losophy". He also went to Amsterdam, the Hague, and Delft, where he e. In the spring of he went by sea from Amsterdam to Edinburgh, where he met his brother, who introduced him to Cullen, Gregory, Young, and Hope.
As soon as Fabricius had in some degree acquired the language, he bought himself a horse and travelled through the Highlands. He visited several parts of the country, gathering insects and plants, and in the beginning of September he and his brother went through the western part of England to London, arriving there in November. In London Fabricius had "the good fortune" of forming an intimate acquain- tance with the Swedish botanist Daniel Solander, at that time located at the British Museum.
Solander introduced him to the scientific clubs and to Joseph Banks. Drury, and others, whose houses and libraries and collections were soon opened to him. He determined and described the insects, and his "Systema Entomologiae" gained ground considerably, as well as his insect collection, which was sent to Copenhagen. During the greatest part of he remained in London.
In June, Banks and Solander went on their e. Their ab- sence "made London appear At the end of the year he left London and went to Paris, which he left in December, travelling through Lyons, Nimes. During this journey he became acquainted with the naturalist Allioni. At Padua he met Vallisneri. From Tubingen he travelled through part of Switzerland to Strasburg. In he was again appointed to a professorship at the Charlottenborg-Institution of Natural History in Copenhagen, with permission to travel for another two years, but when he fi- nally returned, his professorship was transferred to the University and the salary very much reduced.
In the autumn of he travelled through Schleswig and Holstein. His sa- lary at that time was rigsdaler. In he married the daughther of "Cancelieraad" Ambrosius of Flensborg, by whom he had two sons. In 1 he published his work "Anfangsgriinde der okono- mischen Wissenschaften.
His friends Banks and Solander had returned from their voyage around the world, and had brought numerous specimens of natural history, especially insects. With Banks, Hunter, and Drury, Fabricius found plenty to engage his time. He left Copenhagen in to accept an offer, made by Canzler Cramer, of a professorship of natural history, economics and finances at Kiel, which was then Danish, with a salary of rigsdaler, but again his justified expectations were disappoin- ted; he dit not get the necessary facilities for work. He missed there the use of good collections, being exclusively limited to hisown.
During Easter his "Systema Entomologiae" appeared. In he published the "Genera Insectorum" and in the "Phi- losophia Entomologica". In the summer of he joined Professor Weber in an excursion to Norway. That gave rise to the publication of his "Reise nach Norwegen" Hamburg, In he went once more to England, and wrote his "Von der Volks-Ver- mehrung, insonderheit in Dannemark", which appeared in , and in that same year his "Betrachtung iiber die Einrichtungen der Natur".
In the two volumes of the "Species Insectorum" ap- peared, as a continuation of his "Systema". This caused his government to add to his annual stipend rigsdaler. In the summer he made a trip to England. In he published his "Briefe aus England", in "Von der die Erziehung insonderheit in Dannemark". In the summer he travelled with his family through most of the provinces of Germany to Vienna. On the way thither he visited Leipzig, Dresden, and Prague, where he renewed some old acquaintances and formed new friendships. In the autumn he returned to Nurenberg, Er- langen, Mannheim. In he went to St.
Petersburg, then returned to Copenhagen and published in , his "Mantissa Insectorum". In the summer he went again with all his family to England. In he requested his dismissal from the University which was granted, with a pension of rigsdaler but he withdrew his petition and remained as professor. In he travelled with his wife and daughter to Paris, partly because he knew, from Olivier, that the Parisian cabinets contained a considerable num- ber of insects with which he was unacquainted, and partly be- cause, as an economist and politician, he wished to be fully infor- med about the new order of things which had been introduced by the Revolution.
He was received by some of the leaders of the Revolution, especially the family Roland, and was distin- guished wqth the friendship of Desfontaines, Jussieu, Bosc, Four- croy, Olivier, and others, who opened to him all their collections. Two years afterwards his daughter died. From to appeared the "Entomo- logia Systematica" in si. In he was obliged, on account of his wife's health, to leave Kiel and travel to Switzer- land.
They went by way of Jena, where both Fabricius' sons were studying. Gallen, to Winterthur, Ziirich, Lucerne, and, through the republican cantons, back again to Zurich; afterwards they journeyed along the Rhine, by Frankfurt and Cassel, and at the close of the year were again at Kiel. In that same year Fabricius took his wife to Paris, whence she never returned and so in the autumn he returned alone to Kiel.
In the following years he visited his wife in Paris, and again returned to Kiel. From to he went each spring to Copenhagen, to describe themany new insects which his friends and pupils Se- hestedt and Tender Lund had amassed and which had already formed basis for a great part of his descriptions from the Man- tissaonwards.
Tonder Lund was tutor to the young Count Niels Ove Sehestedt, and for a period of two years, both of them had attended lectures by Fabricius in Kiel and became keen collectors of Danish insects, especially Tonder Lund. The collections also included many tropical insects. Both Sehestedt and Tonder Lund held high posts in the Civil Service, through which they were able to contact officials sent out to the Danish colonies in Guinea, Tranquebar.
Rohr, Smidt, and Pflug , and from these regions they obtained large collections of insects. Later on, the two friends, Sehestedt and Tonder Lund, combined their collections, and the right of possession was transferred to Tonder Lund Zimsen, After Fabricius decided to treat every "class" of insects as a whole. Every summer Fabricius went to Paris in order to sec the collections, obtaining the specimens collected by Richard, Bosc, and Palisot de Beauvois.
In the winters he remained in Kiel to fulfill his duties to the University and give lectures on natural history and economics.
His last completed entomological publication was the "Syste- ma Antliatorum", where he adds many new species to those already described by Linnaeus and himself. The great entomologist died on the 3rd of March, Ho- pe, ; Latreille, ; Tu. Fabricius' own collection remained in Kiel after his death and belongs to the Zoological Museum of Kiel. In , it was transferred to the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen, where it is now kept as a "Dauerleihen" from the Museum of Kiel.
Accor- ding to Zimsen Among the ten existing boxes there is only one in which the insects are reasonably well preserved, the rest has been eaten away by dermestids. There is reason to suppose that the collec- tion was spoiled even at the beginning of the last century, since many authors mention its miserable condition. The at the time Kiel Museum have fortunately had the good idea to authorities keep the name labels even if any insect was missing. They can tell us with certainty that the type does not exist. It may be noted that Sehestedt and Tender Lund's collection comprises many Fabrician species donated by himself.
Among these spe- cimens lectotypes may be chosen if the type itself is lost". Systcma cntomologiac, sistcnsinscctorum dasscs, ordincs, genera, species adiectis synonymis, descriptionibiis, obseruationibas, locis, pp.
Genera insecforum corumquc characteres natarales secundum name- ram, figuram, situm ct proportionem omnium partium oris adiecta mantissa spccicrum nuper detectaram. Species inscctocam cxhibcntes coram diffcrentias specificas, syno- nyma, auctoram, loca natalia, metamorphosin, 2 pp. Mantissa Inscctorum sistcns species nuper detcctas 2: Entomologia systematica emendata ct aucta 4: Supplcmentum cntomologiac systematicac, pp. The autobiography of John Christian Fabricius, translated from the Danish -with additional notes and observations. Notice biographique sur Jean Chretien Fabricius, conseiller detat du roi de Dannemarck, professeur d'histoire naturelle et d'economie rurale a Kiell, et raembre d'un grand nombre d'academies.
Fabricius iind die Typen der von ihm beschriebenen Arten. Campe taught Humboldt the natural philosophy of Jean Jacques Rous- seau, according to which the study of history and of the classics should be preceded by the study of nature. This influence of Campe, alhed with Alexander's natural tendency to collect eve- rything he could lay his hands on, in the gardens of his family's house in Tegel, developed in him the wish to travel to distant countries to collect specimens and to broaden the knowledge of the physical world.
This tendency was also greatly strengthened by the reading of books of travels by Banks and Solander, Cook, La Condamine, etc. In September , Humboldt went to the University of Frankfurt am Oder, and in the spring of he moved to Got- tingen, as a student. There he met Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, who was teaching anatomy and anthropology, and under his in- fluence Humboldt became interested in those sciences, as well as in the physiological effects of electricity. Alexan- der was elected fellow of the "Philosophical Society", at whose meetings he could hear the conferences of Christian Gottlob Heine, the establisher of the foundations of archeology.
In , while the French nobility was being decimated by the Revolution, Humboldt studied the geology of the Rhine valley, the subject of his first book, printed in He travelled in with the famous explorer and naturalist. England, and other countries. In July , both returned by way of Paris, where the Revolution was victo- rious, to Mainz Germany. The director of the Academy was the geologist Abraham Gottlieb Werner.
Some of Humboldt's contemporaries would become famous in the geological sciences, as Leopold von Buch, and Fischer von Waldheim. Humboldt finished his course on 26 February During the epoch he travelled to several localities in Europe. After his mother's death in November So, in , he deci- ded to move to Paris, at the time when Napoleon was underta- king his Campaign of Egypt. Paris was then the intellectual center of Europe. At the Jardin des Plantes the former Jardin du Roi. With Bichat he learned com- parative anatomy. Joining the navy, he was sent to Rochefort. Returning to Paris in the beginning of , he studied in several hospitals, and took cour- ses of natural history with Lamarck.
His acquaintance with Humboldt was made at a hotel, where both were staying. Bonpland taught Humboldt anatomy and bo- tany, who reciprocated teaching mineralogy and physics to Bon- pland. On October , they went to Lyon and Marseilles, when- ce they intended to sail to Egypt, on a scientific expedition. On their arrival at Marseilles, however, they learned that the Moslem tribes of northern Africa had rebelled against the French invasion and the authorities denied passports to Argel. They proceeded to Spain, by way of the Mediterranean coast, coming to Madrid, where Humboldt had the pleasure of meeting an old friend of his family, the Ambassador of Saxony, Baron Forell.
At that time, Humboldt and Bonpland had formed the idea of collecting in the Spanish possessions of America, and the idea was transmitted to Forell. Theinterview resulted in the royal permission for the two naturalists to explore the Spanish colonies. With the passport granted, they visited the museums of Spain, to study what had already been collected in the Americas.
Hipolito Ruiz and Jose Pavon, who had recently returned from their adventurous voyages in Peru and Chile, told them of the marvellous natural produc- tions of those countries, but also of the difficulties they would encounter in their travels an excellent translation of the careful diary of Ruiz and Pavon's travels is given by Dahlgren, ; it seems that Ruiz and Pavon collected some insects, which so- mehow ended in Baron von Hoffmansegg's collection, as shall be seen in Chapter VII.
Nothing could dissuade Humboldt and Bonpland from their and they left Madrid in May , heading for the port intent, of La Coruiia, where the "Pizarro" was waiting for them. The captain, fearing for the safety of the crew, if the ship were to continue to Havana, as originally planned, chan- ged route on the night of 15 July , and headed for Cumana, on the coast of Venezuela — where Loefling had landed 45 years before. Next day the passengers landed. Humboldt and Bon- pland, by virtue of the passport granted by Charles IV, found no difficulties and were immediately received by the governor of the Province of Nueva Andalucia Venezuela , Don Vicente Emparan.
Their first week in Cumana NC, a was employed which had recently in the exploration of the city's surroundings, been shaken by an earthquake, and the verification of their in scientific instruments. On the 20th they went to the village of Manicuare NC Thence they returned to the Gulf of Cariaco NC, lld. State of Sucre , but the prevailing fevers prevented them from staying any longer, so they proceeded to Cumana. In the capital of Nueva Andalucia they remained for one further month, prepa- ring their voyage to the Orinoco and the Rio Negro.
On No- vember 4th they had the occasion to experience an earthquake. When Bonpland returned to Ca- racas, both naturalists explored several parts of the region, spen- ding there the months of November and December On 14 December , they had collected along the coasts of Vene- zuela plants, of which were to be described as new. In February , they finally left the coast to travel to the Orinoco. In San Fernando de Apure the missionaries set their pupils to work, and in 8 days, a pirogue 9 meters long was transformed into a sailboat which would transport the scientists to the fron- tiers of Brazil.
Several pages of Humboldt's narrative are filled with complaints about the painful bites of those flies, which made him remember the verses of Dante, "Noi siam venuti al luogo. They arrived at the city of San Carlos NA, c , in the frontier between Colombia and Venezuela, near the northern confines of Brazil. During the night he was arrested, and all his instruments and notes were confiscated. The "Gazeta da Colonia" 2 July announced alarmingly: Under this pretext this stranger may hide plans for the propagation of new ideas and new religious principles among the loyal subjects of this domain.
His excellency [the Governor of Para should investigate the case Still following the Orinoco, they reached Angostura presently Ciu- dad Bolivar. There Bonpland suffered attacks of fever, and his situation was alarming. He was transferred to the house of a doctor, where he was administered infusions of honey and quinine. Humboldt was very afraid of Bonpland's health, and the remem- brance, that not far from there, Loefling had died with fevers, did not help.
Fortunately Bonpland recovered, and the two na- turalists, crossing again the 'llanos' north of the Orinoco, retur- ned to Barcelona, arriving there on 1 September , after ha- ving travelled 6, miles in the lands of Venezuela Garcia, ; Hagen, ; Humboldt, ; Terra, Father Juan Gonzales, who had accompanied the two naturahsts in the trip through the Lower Orinoco, was to transport the collections destined to Paris. The division of the collections proved an excellent idea, since when Father Gonzales approached the coast of Africa, the collections and the Father were lost in a shipwreck, after an attack by pirates.
At the end of 55 days of river trip, the canoe landed in the small Village of Honda NB There they visited the well-known botanist Jose Celestino Mutis, who had been sent to Nueva Granada by Charles III of Spain to in- vestigate the flora; his herbarium had 20, plants, and he owned a very rich library; an army of artists drew the plants of his collections. Through the valley of the Magdalena, they pas- sed by Cartago NB, d. Still proceeding to the south, through the mountains, they spent Christmas in Pasto NA, la.
From Quito they visited the Pichincha May' , and V. From Latacunga they went to Riobamba SA, b , where they stayed for a while, in the meantime making the famous ascension of the Chimborazo 23 June , and visiting Tungurahua SA, ld. Son- derillo, Mandor, Saulaca. Llamoca, Pomahuaca SB, a , Ingatambo. Sigues, Mollebamba SB, 6- 79c. San Diego SB, b. At this point of the voyage they had made Latin descriptions of plants, of which two thirds were writen by Bonpland.
They had travelled 4, miles, bringing 35 boxes with collections, the plants only being represented by 60, specimens. In Lima they remained from 23 October to 24 December , preparing their collections. From Callao they sailed aboard the royal frigate "La Castor", on 24 December, going to Guaya- quil SA, d , where they remained from 3 January to 15 February In the meantime they went as far as Babahoyo SA, a , returning to Guayaquil, and, sailing aboard the frigate Atlante, went to Acapulco, Mexico Petersen, During the trip up the Magdalena River, as well as in the flooded plains of Guayaquil, Humboldt discovered new species of mosquitoes, which were called Culex cyanopensis, C.
The diagnoses of the new species are presented in a footnote on page of the first volume of his "Relation Historique' They began their march to the interior almost immediately, through the present State of Guerrero, passing by Chilpancingo NE, lOOd. In Mexico City NE Returning to the city of Mexico, they packed their collec- tions, and on 20 January , went to Veracruz NE, a , passing through Puebla NE, a.
They arrived at the former city on 19 February. On 7 March they sailed once more to Cuba, staying shortly in Havana, where they picked up the collections made in the Orinoco and left there since Through the consul of the United States, Humboldt received a letter from Thomas Jefferson, inviting him to visit that country. The naturalists sailed for the United States, and after some weeks returned to Europe, arriving there in August Humboldt and Bonpland after the travels The 85, talers owned by Humboldt in were now reduced to 38,, due to the expenses of the travels in America.
The si- tuation was saved by the King of Prussia, who gave Humboldt a pension to cover his expenses. Humboldt obtained from Napoleon an annual pension of 3, francs for Bonpland, who could then work on the elaboration of the "Plantes Equinoxiales". Bonpland was also nominated di- rector of the botanical gardens of the Malmaison. He was then in- vited to go to Caracas, in Venezuela, by Simon Bolivar, but could not accept for several reasons. By that time, Bernardino Riva- davia was in Paris, trying to find people who wanted to go to Argentina.
Bonpland accepted the offer to go to Buenos Aires. On 23 November In Plata, arriving to he became established in the colony Santa-Ana, on the banks of the Rio Parana. Francia, the dictator of Paraguay, had the idea that the colony belonged to his country, and that Bonpland was an agent of the Argentinian government.
On 8 December , Paraguayans invaded the colony, taking Bonpland as prisoner. The botanist remained imprisoned for seven and a half years 7 December to 12 May In spite of all the protests, Francia could not be moved from his silly idea of keep- ing Bonpland prisoner, not even the menaces of Simon Bolivar of invading Paraguay, as can be seen in the following letter translated from the Spanish by George C.
Dictator of Paraguay Lima. Since the earliest years of my youth I have had the honor of cultivating the friendship of Sefior Bonpland and Scnor Baron von Humboldt, whose knowledge has done more good to the Americas than all their conquerors. I am nowconfronted with the information that my beloved friend Sefior Bonpland being held in Paraguay for some reason unknown to me. I is suspect that some false informers have been able to calumniate this worthy scientist, and that the government over which your excellency presides has been misled in regard to this gentleman.
Two circumstances impel me to ask your excellency most earnestly for the freedom of Sefior Bonpland. The first is that I am the cause of his coming to America, because it was I who invited him to move to Colombia, and having already decided on his journey, the circumstances of war forced him to turn to Buenos Aires: Doubtless your excellency knows neither my name nor my services to the American cause: May your excellency deign to hear the clamor of 4 million Americans freed by the army I command, all of whom together with me implore your excellency's clemency out of respect for humanity, wisdom, and justice, out of respect foe SeOoc Bonpland.
Most excellent Sir, I hope that your excellency will not leave my ardent request without effect and I also hope that your excellency may count me among your most faithful and thankful friends as soon as the blameless one whom I love is no longer a victim of injustice. I have the honor to be your excellency's attentive and obedient servant. Finally, after several interrogations, Bonpland was set free on 2 February Bonpland made then several trips in the region, and finally returned to Buenos Aires, in April From then on, he made several trips through Argentina Corrientes Uruguay, and the western part of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil, always collecting plants.
He died on 11 March , in Restau- racion. During his lifetime he collected 10, species of Ame- rican plants. While all this occurred, Humboldt printed his monumental Voyage au regions equino. He also made a trip to Russia, and, surrounded by great fame and the respect of the learned world, he died in , at the age of 90 years Hagen, ; Hamy, ; Terra, Pierre Andre Latreille was born on 29 November , in Brive, a small village in the Province of Limousin, France, and died in Paris on 6 February , in consequence of a "vesical affection".
His mother, before his birth, took refuge in the village of Brive, being attended by a doctor named Laroche. He was baptized with the simple name of Pierre-Andre, since his father was unknown. Only in , by decision of the Tribunal of Brive.
His first studies were made in his native town, and Dr. Laroche and a certain Malepeyre developed in him the taste for natural history, lending him some books on the subject. In , he left Brive to live with his father, who had recognized him. On his father's death, in , his studies were financed by the family d'Espag- nac, and Latreille was transferred to the Seminar of Limoges, where he was ordained priest in During the French Revolution, he took refuge among his friends in his native Brive.
However, as he had not presented himself to swear the new Constitution, they could not help him. While he waited in the prisons of Bordeaux to be deported he saw a tiny beetle coming out of the walls of his cell. While he was examining it, the doctor of the prison, marvelling to see such an interest in a prisoner, asked him whether it was some rare insect.
Receiving a positive answer, the doctor said: I know a person who collects insects, who would appreciate having the specimen you have collected. The doctor's friend was Bory de Saint Vincent, a great stu- dent of natural history, who would later be a member of the French House of Representatives, and one of the founders of the Societe Entomologigue de France.
Bory de Saint-Vincent was not able to identify the beetle, and it was returned to Latreille. Informed by the doctor, Latreille asked for Saint-Vincent's help, saying: Bory de Saint-Vincent used his influence among the repre- sentatives of the Revolution, and obtained an order of conditional liberty for Latreille, and went immediately to the prison. Arri- ving there, however, he had the disappointment of finding out that the prisoners had already sailed, and the ship was descending the Garone River.
Once the order was exhibited, Latreille was released. But only in would he be definitely set free. Let us know about it. Does this product have an incorrect or missing image? Send us a new image. Is this product missing categories? Checkout Your Cart Price. This item is a special order that could take a long time to obtain. Description Details Customer Reviews Vivimos en una generacion sin padre y se esta volviendo una epidemia Millones de jovenes se estan criando sin un padre o una madre. Es en esa posicion de herida donde las generaciones claman con angustia y desespero. Este clamor global -persuasivo, persistente y apasiondado- tiene el potencial de traer una revolucion espiritual a la Tierra.
Mientras narra su historia personal junto con ejemplos biblicos y ensenanzas profundas, Billy Wilson revela como generaciones jovenes y adultas pueden unirse, reclamar lo que estaba perdido y cambiar el dolor por la herida o el abandono paternal por un un lugar de intimidad sobrenatural y ministrarle a otros.