It is aligned with and directly related to state more Although there is a substantial literature on professional development, only a few high-quality studies relate teachers' professional development experiences to student outcomes. Recommendations for high-quality professional development tend to emphasize the importance of intense, content-focused experiences, as well as opportunities for peer collaboration and structured induction experiences for new teachers. Wiley and Yoon and Kennedy suggest that teaching practice and student achievement are likely to improve when professional development is focused on academic content and curriculum that are aligned with standards-based reform.
Kulinna used Guskey and Sparks' Model of Teacher Change to determine whether students' physical activity and BMI changed after their teacher underwent a 1-year professional development program. Significant increases in students' physical activity levels were found, but no significant changes in BMI. Looking at the effect of professional development on changes in behavior among physical education teachers, Martin and colleagues found that, following a variety of professional development experiences and follow-up sessions, teachers showed increases in their efficacy in attaining motor skills objectives, physical activity and fitness knowledge objectives, and personal and social objectives.
These results lend support to the value of professional development in enhancing teachers' perceptions of self-efficacy for teaching the curriculum. McCaughtry and colleagues explored the factors that make teacher professional development successful and what success might mean in terms of teachers' instructional practices and feelings about change. Results indicated that after teachers completed professional development the resources they gained enabled them to improve their instruction by teaching more content, maximizing student learning opportunities, teaching diverse learners, teaching to development, and increasing classroom safety.
Learning Forward formerly known as the National Staff Development Council provides research-based guidelines to assist districts in aligning local professional development programs with qualitative standards. Its Standards for Professional Learning were revised in and are guided by the relationship between professional learning and student results see Box According to Learning Forward Standards for Professional Learning.
Professional learning that increases educator effectiveness and results for all students occurs within learning communities committed to continuous improvement, collective responsibility, and more As a recognized means of providing physical education teachers with the tools necessary to enhance student achievement, quality professional development should be provided on a regular basis with follow-up support, along with a method for determining its effectiveness in meeting both curricular and pedagogical standards.
Furthermore, to enhance the fitness achievement of students, school-based professional development should provide instruction on the integration of fitness testing into a curriculum and should include training in protocols, the interpretation and communication of results, and the setting and achievement of fitness goals and recommendations for developing healthy living habits for both students and their parents IOM, a.
Instructional opportunities for physical activity and physical education are mandated by most states. In comparison with data prior to , more states have developed mandates for physical education at both the elementary and secondary school levels. However, most mandates lack a specified time allocation that ensures meeting the NASPE recommendation of and minutes per week for elementary and secondary schools, respectively McCullick et al. Some obstacles to the implementation of quality physical activity are listed in Box Obstacles to Implementation of Quality Physical Education.
Class periods dedicated to physical education are declining at all school levels. Existing discrepancies between policy and implementation with respect to specific time allocation contribute to more With physical education not being considered a core subject, and amid growing concern regarding the increase in childhood obesity and physical inactivity, several national studies and reports have emphasized the importance of implementing state statutes, laws, and regulations both mandating time requirements for physical education and monitoring compliance.
In the United States, school policies on curriculum and school-based activities are determined by local education agencies according to state laws governing educational activities. Decisions about what to teach, who will teach it, and what level of resources will be provided are made by the state, county or district, and school administration. Of importance to this analysis is the distinction made between state statutes and administrative codes, which accords with the definition proffered by Perna and colleagues Using the NASBE database, the committee performed an overall analysis of policies on physical education and physical activity of the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
The analysis revealed that 45 states 88 percent mandate physical education; 22 states 23 percent require it with mandatory minutes, while 25 states 49 percent have no mandatory minutes and 4 0. A majority of states allow for waivers or substitutions for physical education see the discussion below. Fitness assessment is required in 15 states 29 percent , and other curricular assessments are required in 4 states 0. Twenty-six states 53 percent require physical education grades to be included in a student's grade point average.
Forty-three states 84 percent require some degree of physical education for high school graduation, with a range of 0. Although no federal policies requiring physical education presently exist, the above evidence shows that the majority of states require physical education. However, the number of days and time required vary greatly by state and local school district, as does the amount of physical education required for high school graduation.
Given the reduced time for physical activity in school through recess, and absent the implementation of stronger policies, schools have not only the opportunity but also the responsibility to nurture in youth the skills, knowledge, and confidence to develop and maintain a healthy lifestyle. The consensus among states indicated by the mandates for physical education summarized above, together with the discrepancies in specific policies, may suggest the need for general guidelines or a federal-level mandate that can serve to guide a collective effort to address the prevalence of childhood inactivity and obesity.
In addition to policies that directly require offering physical education in schools, other policies support physical education opportunities in schools. In the U. These policies were to include provisions for physical activity and healthy eating, thus expanding schools' responsibility for providing physical activity to school-age children.
Several government agencies and organizations have recommended embedding a specific number of days and minutes of physical education into each school's or district's wellness policy. Although school districts are required to include goals for physical activity in their local school wellness policies, they are not required to address physical education specifically. Some policies have contributed to the substantial reduction in the opportunities for school-age children to be physically active, such as by shortening or eliminating physical education classes.
These reductions can be attributed to budget cuts and increased pressure for schools to meet academic standards imposed by the federal government. The No Child Left Behind Act of requires that states develop assessment and accountability measures to verify performance improvements in the subject areas of reading and mathematics P. Specifically, federal funding is now dependent on schools making adequate progress in reading and mathematics. No Child Left Behind requires all public schools receiving federal funding to administer statewide standardized annual tests for all students.
Schools that receive Title I funding through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of must make adequate yearly progress in test scores e. If required improvements are not made, schools are penalized through decreased funding. If a school produces poor results for 2 consecutive years, improvement plans must be developed for the school. If a school does not make adequate progress for 5 consecutive years, a full restructuring of the school is mandated. In response to the act, schools have devoted more time in the school day to instruction in reading and mathematics.
Unfortunately, 44 percent of school administrators reported that these increases in instructional time for reading and mathematics were achieved at the expense of time devoted to physical education, recess, art, music, and other subjects Center on Education Policy, , see Table The emphasis on high-stakes testing and pressure for academic achievement in the core subjects has had unintended consequences for other subjects throughout the school day. As discussed earlier, however, no evidence suggests that physical education and physical activity have a negative effect on student achievement or academic outcomes CDC, On the contrary, positive academic-related outcomes e.
The Center on Education Policy conducted an analysis of — survey data from school districts on the amount of time devoted to specific subjects to determine the impact of the No Child Left Behind Act. Shifts in instructional time toward English language arts and mathematics and away from other subjects were relatively large in a majority of school districts that made these types of changes. A higher proportion of urban districts 76 percent than rural districts 54 percent reported such increases.
Districts that also reduced instructional time in other subjects reported total reductions of 32 percent, on average. Eight of 10 districts that reported increasing time for English language arts did so by at least 75 minutes per week, and more than half 54 percent did so by minutes or more per week. Among districts that reported adding time for mathematics, 63 percent added at least 75 minutes per week, and 19 percent added minutes or more per week. Most districts that increased time for English language arts or mathematics also reported substantial cuts in time for other subjects or periods, including social studies, science, art and music, physical education, recess, and lunch.
Among the districts that reported both increasing time for English language arts or mathematics and reducing time in other subjects, 72 percent indicated that they reduced the time for one or more of these other subjects by a total of at least 75 minutes per week. For example, more than half 53 percent of these districts cut instructional time by at least 75 minutes per week in social studies, and the same percentage 53 percent cut time by at least 75 minutes per week in science Center on Education Policy, Districts that reported an increase in instructional time for elementary school English language arts spent an average of minutes per week on this subject before No Child Left Behind was enacted.
After the act became law, they spent minutes per week. The average increase for English language arts was minutes per week, or a 47 percent increase over the level prior to the act Center on Education Policy, ; see district survey items 18 and 19 in Table ITA. Table shows the specific amounts of time cut from various subjects in districts that reported decreases. For example, 51 percent of districts with a school in need of improvement reported decreased time in social studies, compared with 31 percent of districts with no school in need of improvement Center on Education Policy, The Shape of the Nation Report includes documentation of the multiple reasons students may be exempt from physical education classes.
Thirty-three states permit school districts or schools to allow students to substitute other activities for physical education. Although it would seem reasonable that some substitution programs such as JROTC or cheerleading might accrue physical activity comparable to that from physical education, these programs do not necessarily offer students opportunities to learn the knowledge and skills needed for lifelong participation in health-enhancing physical activities. No evidence currently exists showing that students receive any portion of the recommended 60 minutes or more of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity through substituted activities sanctioned by their schools.
Barriers other than the policies detailed above hinder efforts to improve and maintain high-quality physical education.
This section reviews these barriers, along with some solutions for overcoming them. Morgan and Hanson classify barriers that hinder schools from implementing quality physical education programs as either institutional outside the teacher's control or teacher related arising from teacher behavior. Table lists institutional and teacher-related as well as student-related barriers identified by various authors.
Dwyer and colleagues examined Toronto teachers' perspectives on why children were not engaged in daily physical education. They identified three categories of barriers: Jenkinson and Benson surveyed secondary school physical education teachers in Victoria, Australia, and asked them to rank order the barriers they perceived to providing quality physical education. The results are shown in Table The institutional barriers listed in this table are similar to those identified for U. Jenkinson and Benson also presented teachers with a list of barriers to student participation in physical education and physical activity in three categories: The teachers were asked to rank the top five barriers they perceived.
Results are presented in Table Finally, Gallo and colleagues found that the greatest process barriers to assessing students in physical education were grading students on skill levels and abilities; time constraints; class size; and record keeping, especially when assessing students on skills, cognitive knowledge, and fitness. Two key barriers to physical education identified in the studies summarized above are staffing and funding. These barriers reflect a lack of support structure in schools for quality physical education.
As noted earlier in this chapter, physical education is short staffed. State mandates have placed pressure on schools to preserve instructional resources for the high-stakes tested core subject areas at the expense of non-core subjects. For example, when a state mandates a maximum class size of 20 students per teacher in all core subjects, with noncompliance resulting in some form of penalty, an elementary school with an average of 25 students per teacher is forced to hire additional teachers in these subjects to meet the state mandate. Consequently, the school must shrink its teaching force in noncore subjects, such as physical education, to balance its budget.
If noncore classes are to be preserved, their class sizes must increase, with fewer teachers serving more students. As a result, it becomes difficult to implement a quality program, and physical education teachers perceive their programs as being undervalued.
School-Based Physical Education and Sports Programs GAO, , school officials cite budget cuts and inadequate facilities as major challenges to providing physical education opportunities for students. Budget cuts have affected schools' ability to hire physical education teachers, maintain appropriate class sizes, and purchase sufficient equipment. As noted earlier, lack of equipment and limited access to facilities are cited as top barriers in the study by Jenkinson and Benson see Tables and Students disengaged as a result of such practices may prefer sedentary activities to more active lifestyles.
For many adolescents who have few opportunities to be active outside of the school day, quality physical education becomes the only option for physical activity. For students in large urban communities, physical education classes serve as a safe environment in which to be physically active under adult supervision in a structured environment. For students with disabilities in particular, physical education classes are one of the only outlets for physical activity. For these reasons, it is crucial to overcome the above barriers to quality physical education.
Some school districts have found ways to do so and provide robust physical education programs. The barrier of limited time during the school day can be overcome through creative scheduling that makes use of every minute of the day in a constructive manner. For example, Miami-Dade County Public Schools is the fourth largest school district in the United States, in a large urban minority-majority community with large budgetary shortfalls and attention in schools being diverted to academic requirements.
Yet the district has always had daily physical education in its elementary schools taught by a certified physical education teacher. This is accomplished by scheduling physical education during the classroom teacher's planning time. In addition, students receive school board—mandated recess for either 20 minutes two times per week or 15 minutes three times per week. Figures and show examples of elementary school teacher schedules that demonstrate how minutes of time for physical education can be incorporated successfully into any master schedule. Example of a schedule demonstrating time for minutes per week of physical education.
Sample is taken from a teacher schedule in a traditional elementary school. Other positive examples, identified in the report Physical Education Matters San Diego State University, , include successful case studies from low-resource California schools.
Schools can provide outstanding learning environments while improving children's health through physical education. These data appear to suggest that physical education teacher education programs are beginning to turn from a traditionally sports- and skills-centered model to a more comprehensive, physical activity— and health-centered model. Professional Development In all educational settings, professional development for teachers and administrators is a continuous process of acquiring new knowledge and skills that relate to an educator's profession or academic subject area, job responsibilities, or work environment. Teaching spatial awareness to children. Analysis of State Statutes and Administrative Codes In the United States, school policies on curriculum and school-based activities are determined by local education agencies according to state laws governing educational activities. Finally, Sheehan and Katz found that among school-age children the use of active gaming added to postural stability, an important component of motor skills development.
The report acknowledges, however, that advancing such opportunities will require policy changes at the state, district, and local levels. These changes include securing grant funds with which to implement high-tech physical education wellness centers, staff commitment to professional development, administrative support, physical education being made a priority, community support, use of certified physical education teachers, and district support.
Identifying the need to reform physical education guided by evidence-based findings, the report concludes that 1 curriculum matters, 2 class size matters, 3 qualified teachers matter, 4 professional development matters, and 5 physical environment matters. If programs are to excel and students are to achieve, delivery of the curriculum must be activity based; class sizes must be commensurate with those for other subject areas; highly qualified physical education specialists, as opposed to classroom teachers, must be hired to deliver instruction; professional development in activity-focused physical education must be delivered; and school physical education facilities, such as playing fields and indoor gym space and equipment, must be available.
A separate report, Physical Education Matters: Success Stories from California Low Resource Schools That Have Achieved Excellent Physical Education Programs San Diego State University, , notes that when funding from a variety of grant resources, including federal funding, became available, schools were able to transition to high-quality programs using innovative instructional strategies. Those strategies included wellness centers and active gaming, which engaged students in becoming more physically active.
Administrative support was found to be a key factor in turning programs around, along with staff commitment and professional development. Having certified physical education teachers and making physical education a priority in the schools were other key factors. External factors further strengthened programs, including having school district support, having a physical education coordinator, and using state standards to provide accountability.
Additional ways to overcome the barriers to quality physical education include scheduling time for physical education, ensuring reasonable class size, providing nontraditional physical education activities, making classes more active and fun for all students, and acknowledging the importance of role modeling and personal investment and involvement in participation in physical activity among staff.
Still another way to overcome the barriers to quality physical education is to assist administrative decision makers and policy makers in understanding the correlation between physical education and academic achievement see Chapter 4. The report Active Education: Schools can provide outstanding learning environments while improving children's health through physical education.
Physical education is a formal content area of study in schools, it is standards based, and it encompasses assessment according to standards and benchmarks. Select curriculum-based physical education programs have been described in this chapter to show the potential of high-quality physical education in developing children into active adults. Such models provide the only opportunity for all school-age children to access health-enhancing physical activities. Curriculum models for physical education programs include movement education, which emphasizes the importance of fundamental motor skills competence as a prerequisite for engagement in physical activity throughout the life span; sport education, which emphasizes helping students become skillful players in lifetime sports of their choosing; and fitness education, which imparts physical fitness concepts to students, including the benefits and scientific principles of exercise, with the goal of developing and maintaining individual fitness and positive lifestyle change.
The emergence of a technology-focused fitness education curriculum and the new Presidential Youth Fitness Program offer further motivational opportunities for students to engage in lifelong physical activities. Because quality physical education programs are standards based and assessed, they are characterized by 1 instruction by certified physical education teachers, 2 a minimum of minutes per week for elementary schools and minutes per week for middle and high schools, and 3 tangible standards for student achievement and for high school graduation.
Quality professional development programs are an essential component for both novice and veteran teachers to ensure the continued delivery of quality physical education.
Since passage of the No Child Left Behind Act in , several studies and reports have identified a decline in physical education resulting from the shifting of time to academic subjects. Because physical education is not a high-stakes tested content area, the implementation of supportive policies often is hindered by other education priorities. Although the above analysis indicates that 30 states In addition, an unintended consequence of the No Child Left Behind Act has been disparities in access to physical education and physical activity opportunities during the school day for Hispanic students and those of lower socioeconomic status.
In high school, relying on students to elect physical education after meeting the minimum required credit hours one credit in all states but one appears to be unfruitful. Strengthening of school physical education has received support from the public, health agencies, and parents. Parents recently surveyed expressed favorable views of physical education. Additionally, many public and private organizations have proposed initiatives aimed at developing a comprehensive school-based strategy centered on curriculum physical education.
As the largest institution where children spend more than half of their waking hours on school days, schools can play a pivotal role in increasing students' physical activity levels by providing access for all to quality physical education, along with physical activities throughout the school environment, the subject of Chapter 7.
Available online at http: Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Key Messages Because it is guaranteed to reach virtually all children, physical education is the only sure opportunity for nearly all school-age children to access health-enhancing physical activities. High-quality physical education programs are characterized by 1 instruction by certified physical education teachers, 2 a minimum of minutes per week 30 minutes per day for children in elementary schools and minutes per week 45 minutes per day for students in middle and high schools, and 3 tangible standards for student achievement and for high school graduation.
Quality physical education has strong support from both parents and child health professional organizations. Several models and examples demonstrate that physical education scheduled during the school day is feasible on a daily basis. Substantial discrepancies exist in state mandates regarding the time allocated for physical education.
Nearly half of school administrators 44 percent reported cutting significant time from physical education and recess to increase time spent in reading and mathematics since passage of the No Child Left Behind Act. Standardized national-level data on the provision of and participation, performance, and extent of engagement in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity are insufficient to allow assessment of the current status and trends in physical education in the United States.
Systematic research is needed on personal, curricular, and policy barriers to successful physical education. The long-term impact of physical education has been understudied and should be a research priority to support the development of evidence-based policies. Physical Education as Part of Education In institutionalized education, the main goal has been developing children's cognitive capacity in the sense of learning knowledge in academic disciplines.
Curriculum Models Given that curricula are determined at the local level in the United States, encompassing national standards, state standards, and state-adopted textbooks that meet and are aligned with the standards, physical education is taught in many different forms and structures. Movement Education Movement has been a cornerstone of physical education since the s. Sport Education One prevalent physical education model is the sport education curriculum designed by Daryl Siedentop Siedentop, ; Siedentop et al.
Fitness Education Instead of focusing exclusively on having children move constantly to log activity time, a new curricular approach emphasizes teaching them the science behind why they need to be physically active in their lives. Other Innovative Programs While several evidence-based physical education programs—such as the Coordinated Approach to Child Health CATCH and Sports, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids SPARK —are being implemented in schools, many innovative programs also have been implemented nationwide that are motivating and contribute to skills attainment while engaging youth in activities that are fun and fitness oriented.
Differences Among Elementary, Middle, and High Schools Instructional opportunities vary within and among school levels as a result of discrepancies in state policy mandates. Children in Nontraditional Schools Research on physical education, physical activity, and sports opportunities in nontraditional school settings charter schools, home schools, and correctional facilities is extremely limited.
Fitness Assessment All states except Iowa have adopted state standards for physical education. Online Physical Education Online physical education is a growing trend. Scheduling Decisions Lesson scheduling is commonly at the discretion of school principals in the United States. National Standards Because physical education is part of the curriculum in schools, its quality should be judged only by whether and to what extent children have learned and benefited from it. Certified Physical Education Specialists as the Main Teaching Force If standards are the gauge for quality, teachers make the difference in a particular school in terms of the extent to which students can achieve the standards.
Professional Development In all educational settings, professional development for teachers and administrators is a continuous process of acquiring new knowledge and skills that relate to an educator's profession or academic subject area, job responsibilities, or work environment. When professional learning is standards based, it has greater potential to change what educators know, are able to do, and believe. When educators' knowledge, skills, and dispositions change, they have a broader repertoire of effective strategies to use in adapting their practices to meet performance expectations and students' learning needs.
Professional learning standards provide a foundation on which to design professional learning experiences at the district or school level that will assist educators in acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills, and tools. Analysis of State Statutes and Administrative Codes In the United States, school policies on curriculum and school-based activities are determined by local education agencies according to state laws governing educational activities. Policies That Support Physical Education In addition to policies that directly require offering physical education in schools, other policies support physical education opportunities in schools.
Policies That Hinder Physical Education Some policies have contributed to the substantial reduction in the opportunities for school-age children to be physically active, such as by shortening or eliminating physical education classes. No Child Left Behind Act The No Child Left Behind Act of requires that states develop assessment and accountability measures to verify performance improvements in the subject areas of reading and mathematics P.
Exemptions from Physical Education Requirements The Shape of the Nation Report includes documentation of the multiple reasons students may be exempt from physical education classes. Barriers Morgan and Hanson classify barriers that hinder schools from implementing quality physical education programs as either institutional outside the teacher's control or teacher related arising from teacher behavior.
Staffing As noted earlier in this chapter, physical education is short staffed. Solutions for Overcoming the Barriers For many adolescents who have few opportunities to be active outside of the school day, quality physical education becomes the only option for physical activity. SUMMARY Physical education is a formal content area of study in schools, it is standards based, and it encompasses assessment according to standards and benchmarks.
A majority of parents 54—84 percent believe that physical education is at least as important as other academic subjects CDC, Ninety-one percent believe that there should be more physical education in schools Harvard School of Public Health, Seventy-six percent think that more school physical education could help control or prevent childhood obesity NASPE, a. Ninety-five percent believe that regular daily physical activity helps children do better academically and should be a part of the school curriculum for all students in grades K NASPE, Let's move in school.
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Boyce B, Rikard GL. Characteristics of PETE doctoral level institutions: Descriptions of programs, faculty and doctoral students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. Physical activity among adolescents and barriers to delivering physical education in Cornwall and Lancashire, UK A qualitative study of heads of P.
Castelli D, Rink JE. A comparison of high and low performing secondary physical education programs. The relationship of physical fitness and motor competence to physical activity. The association between school based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance. Center on Education Policy. Choices, changes, and challenges: Curriculum and instruction in the NCLB era. Center on Education Policy; A call to restructure restructuring: Is in-class physical activity at risk in constructivist physical education.
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. Content specificity of expectancy beliefs and task values in elementary physical education. Influences of personal and lesson factors on caloric expenditure in physical education. Journal of Sport and Health Science. Cohen D, Hill H. Instructional policy and classroom performance: The mathematics reform in California. The Teachers College Record. Physical activity for everyone: What every physical educator should know about promoting lifelong physical activity. Dagkas S, Stathi A. Exploring social and environmental factors affecting adolescents' participation in physical activity.
European Physical Education Review. Daum DN, Buschner C. The status of high school online physical education in the United States. Classroom teachers and the challenges of delivering quality physical education. Journal of Educational Research. Articulating a Working Philosophy of Program Planning. Enacting a Sense of Ethical Responsibility. Appraising the Organization's External Environment.
Appraising the Organization's Internal Environment. Assessing Needs and Negotiating Stakeholders' Interests. Setting Goals and Objectives. Formulating the Instructional Design. Recruiting and Retaining Program Participants. Promoting and Marketing Programs. Budgeting and Financing Programs. Notes Includes bibliographical references p.
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