Through a comparison of Thai Buddhist and Tai pre-Buddhist conceptions of death and the afterlife, this paper shows how the theory of karmic causation introduced uncertainty about the status of rebirth and failed to erase previous conceptions about the afterlife. As a result, the belief in reincarnation coexists with the idea that the soul of the deceased may maintain an active presence among the living. Buddhism also imposed a redemption-cum-protection transactional pattern with spirits and deities, whose gradations of meaning are interpreted with reference to different variables.
This pattern extends to supernatural patron—client bonds, a typical feature of the Thai social structure. Skip to main content. South East Asia Research. Thai Buddhism as the Promoter of Spirit Cults. Vol 24, Issue 1, pp.
Download Citation If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. What is unfashionable is what other people wear. Other people are quite dreadful. The only possible society is oneself. But what it really shows is how much Wilde was still in the grip of conventions, as embodied in ready-made plotting, and how he was not yet able to make the plots express himself and his characters rather than the societal expectations that ruled the world of plot. They laugh angrily at his epigrams, like a child who is coaxed into being amused in the very act of setting up a yell of rage and agony.
They protest that the trick is obvious, and that such epigrams can be turned out by the score by anyone light-minded enough to condescend to such frivolity. As far as I can ascertain, I am the only person in London who cannot sit down and write an Oscar Wilde play at will. The fact that his plays, though apparently lucrative, remain unique under these circumstances, says much for the self-denial of our scribes. In a certain sense Mr. Wilde is to me our only thorough playwright. He plays with everything: But it was an underground success from the first. And of course the expression of such a vision could only be poetic.
Her love for Jokanaan is based both on admiration for his equally uncompromising personal vision and on her need to possess him and his purity as part of her own dream, proof of the power of her vision. Except that Herod has the last word by having her killed. The standard line on the three serio -comedies is that they are brilliant failures, compromised by their well-made, conventional plots, which were calculated for box-office appeal.
Had The Importance of Being Earnest not shown how much better the thing could be done, however, they might not be so denigrated. Perhaps when one sees what Earnest actually does, how vastly ahead of the times it is, one can excuse Wilde for taking three plays to get the hang of it. What he tried to accomplish in the three serio -comedies was the probably impossible blending together of the lyrical ideal of the Symbolists with the traditional comedy of manners and the new well-made, realistic problem play, a mix to be expressive of the modern sensibility. He succeeded in his synthesizing efforts, in Earnest , only when he abandoned the attempt to take the well-made, realistic play seriously, adding it to the mix only in its parodied form.
That the characters choose to express the suffering that arises from the disjunction between society and self, not with satirized Chekhovian angst, but with Wildean epigrams, is their unique feature. The kind of comedy Wilde found most self-expressive was that in which the witty characters take pride in being unruffled by their own despair, using it, in fact, entertainingly and creatively to display the positive value of personality.
When Wilde permeated an entire plot with that sense of comedy, he produced the masterpiece of Earnest. The absolutist conventions said that villains may threaten but objective standards of right and wrong ultimately prevail, as society always defeats the selfish, individualistic villain. So overwhelming was the convention that self-assertion was tantamount to selfishness, so relentless the propaganda in behalf of convention, so steady the inculcation of self-denial in the young, that only a powerful, revolutionary personality could overcome it, after hard struggle.
The way to do this was by standing things on their heads. The Importance of Being Earnest is the epitome of standing things on their head. Subtitled A Trivial Comedy for Serious People , Earnest follows the wooing by Algernon and Jack of Cicely and Gwendolen , who insist straight-facedly that neither of them could marry a man who did not possess the name Ernest, though they are just as likely to say things, as above, that suggest an opposite concern for style over sincerity.
And yet these clever young people are earnest enough about their playing. So exaggerated, the plot becomes a parody of plots. No less parodistic is the paroxysm of romantic feeling that ends the play, with every available couple thrown into embrace. There are satiric thrusts in all directions, but the satire is merely the channel for the lyrical expression of personal wit.
It ridicules Victorian earnestness, which was thought the outward aspect of such inward virtues as nobility, purity, and manliness, but that ridicule is subordinated to the lyrical celebration of the opposite of earnestness—namely, flippancy of tone and frivolity of attitude, life-affirming qualities in a society wretched with mechanical earnestness. And, of course, in lyricism it is authentic feeling that matters, not logical consistency.
The further absurdity of the traditional marriage ending is that marriage, as with any other social contract, will not prevent our young romancers from continuing to lead double lives. The result of all this institutionalized Jekyll-and- Hyding could only be a comedy of mistaken identities, but in having his characters keep on quipping, no matter what, Wilde added a comedy of cleverness to the traditional comic pattern. The despair lay in his sense of the insanity and uncontrollability of the strictly heterosexual social machine, which was driving him deeper into alienation; the hubris lay partly in his belief that he could control the social machine by using it for amusement.
Marry if you like, but then do what you like. Surely everyone will see the joke. It would seem that Earnest , beneath its slick exterior of innocent fun, is expressive of a deadly combination of states of mind. Had his friends known how much Wilde sought total revelation of being, they might not have wasted their time trying to save him. And only he, and perhaps a few other exquisites, realized how serious this farce was.
But if he was secretly driven by a passion for some ultimate alienation, how could such a superior person commit the vulgar, middle-class error of suing for the respectability of his name? Unless in playing with a double life he had in earnest become two people? Noticeably he left out last-minute conversions to Catholicism, which Wilde apparently attempted, in the last of a series of desperate improvisations, aimed at being born again.
And he was born again, in an amazing number of ways. For Oscar Wilde, in the history of drama at least, was the great precursor. Even more than Christopher Marlowe, whose promising but disastrously brief career invites an inevitable comparison, Wilde opened doors to the future for the greater drama to come. First as a contribution to the Pineroesque New Drama, his three serio -comedies questioned the double standard and idealistic notions of good and evil in a way that strengthened that genre, making it possible fur Galsworthy and Maugham to take bolder steps, and also showed that wit was no liability to the genre—in fact, the plays of both Jones and Pinero may have been wittier because Wilde was a box-office rival.
Second, Wilde joined Maeterlinck and Yeats in opening up the possibility of a new kind of poetic-Symbolist drama. Third, the vision and technique of Earnest is only slightly askew from that of The Theater of the Absurd, and one can imagine a Beckett, lonesco , Orton, or Stoppard meditatively perusing Wilde. Fourth, his revival and transformation of the comedy of manners made that a viable genre again for the further development of Hankin , Sutro , Maugham, Lonsdale, and Coward, not to mention a host of postmoderns. Well, not exactly, but in George Bernard Shaw something great of itself and equally as unique occurred.
That The Oxford History of English Literature , in , devoted to Shaw its only chapter on modern playwrights in its volume Eight Modern Writers is a fairly good indication, from a conservative source, that criticism is being quicker with Shaw than it was with Shakespeare in acknowledging preeminence. If Shaw thought Oscar Wilde would be welcomed in heaven, it was because he had an unusual view of that place, as he had an unusual view of most everything. In his preface to Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant , Shaw catalogs his unusualness: I had no taste for what is called popular art, no respect for popular morality, no belief in popular religion, no admiration for popular heroics.
As an Irishman I could pretend to patriotism neither for the country I had abandoned nor the country that had ruined it. I was a Socialist, detesting our anarchical scramble for money, and believing in equality as the only possible permanent basis of social organization, discipline, subordination, good manners, and selection of fit persons for high functions. I was neither skeptic nor cynic in these matters: I simply understood life differently from the average respectable man.
We cannot both see things as they really are. Every despot must have one disloyal subject to keep him sane. Even Louis the Eleventh had to tolerate his confessor, standing for the eternal against the temporal throne. Democracy has now handed the sceptre of the despot to the sovereign people; but they, too, must have their confessor, whom they call Critic.
Its iconoclasms, seditions, and blasphemies, if well turned, tickles those whom they shock; so that the critic adds the privileges of the court jester to those of the confessor. It was as Punch, then, that I emerged from obscurity. All I had to do was to open my normal eyes, and with my utmost literary skill put the case exactly as it struck me, or describe the thing exactly as I saw it, to be applauded as the most humorously extravagant paradoxer in London.
Yet Shaw invited attack by drawing attention to his devilish self—for example, by banking up his red hair on the sides to look like horns, to complement his devilish opinions see Figure below. How does such a complicated, paradoxical personality construct itself? At first, as with everyone, it is at the mercy of family environment operating upon family genes. She was soon disillusioned, for he was poor at handling money and even worse at handling his liquor.
Alcoholism was rampant in the family, at least three uncles and one aunt suffering from it as well, and thus Shaw wisely became a teetotaler. This made Shaw a peculiar Dionysian, by the way, but he was so intoxicated with life, words, music, etc. He was born drunk.
The virtue of this coolness was that it left young Shaw more free to grow up as his nature was inclined, in an age in which the misshaping of children was determinedly pursued by the respectable.
Had other children of his day fulfilled their sense of protest by painting a picture of Mephistopheles on their bedroom wall, as Shaw did, they would probably have been severely punished, as he was not. Except that the more he explored that romantic region, the more discontented he became with its genres.
From Lee he learned to be skeptical of academic authorities, especially doctors, how to enjoy his passion for music, and, most important, how to dramatize himself and become an effective personality. Shaw must have remembered Lee when he later converted his own shy and introverted self into the bold and brash G.
From his father, however, he did inherit the famous Shavian sense of anticlimax, the technique of undercutting a crescendo of piety or solemnity with a joke. Shaw was also instructed by the fact that some of the best singing voices around his mother belonged to Catholics. The usual notion that all Catholics were doomed to perdition, heaven being reserved exclusively for Protestant ladies and gentlemen, was rather thrown into question by the heavenly voices of the Catholics his mother knew.
Shaw soon discovered that Protestantism and Catholicism in Ireland were less religious sects than political factions, having to do with the struggle for power between a minority Protestant governing class that had emigrated mainly from England , from the seventeenth century on, and a majority of largely poorer Celtic and mixed-blood people who were forced off their land by the invaders. His socialism can be understood as a political-economic transmutation of his wish to correct a warped social vision and to teach people better manners.
The life of art his mother and her friends had led him into was the only thing that made Dublin tolerable for Shaw, and in learning to appreciate painting and literature and to sing scraps of opera, Shaw in his imagination left Dublin far behind long before his body did. Contributing to his reasons for wanting to leave was a rather sterile job he held, from ages fifteen to nineteen, as, first, office-boy and, eventually, head cashier for a prominent firm of Dublin realtors.
The office training taught him the importance of steady work habits and of acquiring technical skill, which later came in handy, but the snobbishness of the business and the cruelty of the laissez-faire capitalism behind its polite facade repulsed him. Horrified at the rapidity with which he was climbing the corporate ladder, Shaw in fled to London, where his mother had followed Lee in to be partners in teaching voice. She allowed her son to sponge off her, albeit meagerly, for the next twenty years, the first ten of which he earned next to nothing. I threw my mother. Lawrence , a picturesque village just north of London.
But that all came later, after years of seedy, hand-to-mouth existence. During the early years, when suitable jobs were hard to come by, Shaw read heavily, joined debating societies to develop a speaking style, and in five years industriously wrote five novels in which he experimented with various personae and constructed "G. Seldom has journalism been graced by so much cheerful and informative wit as Shaw poured into his weekly articles. I was accusing my opponents of failure because they were not doing what I wanted, whereas they were often succeeding very brilliantly in doing what they themselves wanted.
Shaw also became one of the most popular mob orators and platform debaters in London. At first shy and timid, Shaw forced himself to speak at every opportunity, becoming by sheer obnoxious perseverance a speaker of such aplomb that he could master almost any situation. Shaw not only excelled as a political pamphleteer and stump speaker but also as a committeeman, his effectiveness apparent in his work on the Fabian executive committee and in his six years as vestryman on a London borough council St. What with serving on councils and committees, orating and debating, writing novels, pamphlets, reviews, articles, and finally plays, not to mention keeping up a voluminous correspondence, Shaw lived an extremely busy and engaged life, committed to revolutionary purpose.
Ibsen showed him that the drama could answer better than any other medium his need for both private expression and participation in the public forum. Written by a young man who had failed in the private world of art as a novelist but who was beginning to succeed in the public world as a critic, pamphleteer, and gadfly, The Quintessence takes on the character of a Shaw struggling to become an extrovert. The Idealist, who has taken refuge with the ideals because he hates himself and is ashamed of himself, thinks that all this is so much for the better.
The Realist, who has come to have a deep respect for himself and faith in the validity of his own will, thinks it so much the worse. To the [Idealist], human nature, naturally corrupt, is held back from ruinous excesses only by self-denying conformity to the ideals. To [the Realist], these ideals are only swaddling clothes which man has outgrown, and which insufferably impede his progress. No wonder the two cannot agree. This constant banking of the fires of human creativity keeps things at a standstill, preventing evolutionary growth, and causes unnecessary hypocrisy.
Of course Nature always wins in any battle with idealism, but the Shavian lesson is that the defeat of idealism is no cause for despair and cynicism, as the Idealists think, for the natural self is an aspiring self, imbued by evolution with a need to seek higher levels of being. The astral body will be reached, not by denying the natural self, but by allowing it to fulfill its will in the evolutionary process.
As he moved into playwriting, the exercise became habitual. Shaw dramatized and fictionalized the special problems of genius in its attempt to adapt to a hostile environment, his craving for public participation in his private story an expression of his need for human communion, to make his environment less hostile. Oscar Wilde had shown how to draw contumely by playing the idler and the aesthete; Shaw, though also playing an Irish ironist, wanted enough respect from the citizenry so that he could lead them to a better life, and that could be achieved only by convincing them of his probity as a realistic, journalistic sort of artist concerned, not with exotic private fantasies, but with the everyday world.
The further contrast was between a Wildean selfishness that seemed to act entirely for its own sake and a Shavian self-assertiveness that, abstemious and vegetarian, had as its by-product the good of the whole. Making the same false start as a dramatist as did Ibsen, Shaw in began a blank-verse heroic tragedy he called Household of Joseph , which has since been given the title Passion Play.
But that genre was already an anachronism by the eighteenth century, owing to the rise of the bourgeoisie and parliamentary democracy. Perhaps sensing this, Shaw abandoned his play in the second act. Yet, despite the antiquated verse, this fragment is full of astonishing modernisms, especially in its irreverent, humanizing characterizations. The figure of the scapegoat would also recur, usually associated with that visionary realism The Quintessence talks about. But it took a few plays for this pattern to emerge.
In his preface to Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant , Shaw wrote: This was not to be endured. I had rashly taken up the case; and rather than let it collapse I manufactured the evidence. But taste was changing. Pinero, Jones, and Wilde provided escape valves by making everything come out all right, allowing convention to triumph over realism and the problem to prove unproblematic.
It seems that in or drama critic William Archer proposed to novelist Shaw that they collaborate on a play. The play does not advocate socialism, however, though socialism is, of course, a possible remedy for the social ills portrayed. Shaw was equally misunderstood on the subject of Ibsen and his individualism. The Quintessence of Ibsenism had correctly portrayed Ibsen as an ironist who undercut all programs, liberal or conservative, the quintessence of his moral position being that there was no quintessence, that is, no easy formula for deciding moral questions, for the human will being constantly in growth cannot be judged today on standards set yesterday, nor can the individual be judged by group standards.
The plot has mainly to do with the efforts of Leonard Charteris , philanderer, to escape an old flame, the possessive, passionately jealous, and very womanly Julia Craven, by proposing marriage to a new flame and a New Woman, Grace Tranfield , with frustrating results. But the character of Charteris contains little of the visionary realism Shaw was promoting and seems a very narrow self-conception. But such evasive behavior is merely that of a man in a quandary, not that of a man who is one of the makers of the future.
In their conflict, Mrs. Warren and her daughter, Vivie , have the sort of intellectual scope and emotional force that one came to expect from Shaw. In the year of the great success of The Second Mrs.
And yet the triumph went unnoticed because the censor kept the play out of the theater. It seems her mother, to escape a life of extreme poverty and hardship, took to prostitution as a young girl, becoming through perseverance, thrift, and the exercise of managerial skills the owner and operator of a successful and humanely run chain of European brothels, heavily invested in by respectable types, and she feels that she has no apologies to make and that there is no need to retire as a businesswoman, prostitution being the universal condition in a capitalist system.
Warren, rather unawares, is the principal catalyst in the development of Vivie , as Vivie experiences a death of the old Idealist self and is reborn as an incipient Realist. One test of the would-be Realist is in the ability to assert independence from parental authority and to escape the drug of romance. Vivie passes the test, but one wonders if the work of actuarial accountant is really appropriate to one who sees that prostitution is a universal, inescapable condition of modern employment.
She seems curiously uncommitted, as cutting off parent and suitor only leaves her in a vacuum. Leaving Vivie with nothing very worthwhile to do with her new soul may, however, express the problematic nature of becoming a Realist. The Philanderer and Mrs. The Philanderer did not receive a public performance until private performances were in and , and Mrs. Shaw saw the idealistic or romantic imagination as doing great mischief, with its visions of women as domestic angels, marriages as made in heaven, and gloriously ennobling cavalry charges as proving grounds for manly men.
In the four plays of Plays Pleasant—Arms and the Man , Candida , The Man of Destiny , and You Never Can Tell —Shaw changed his strategy and with it his conception of himself as a playwright and his notion of how best he could convert the powers of the theater to the service of the realistic imagination. The shift in attention from social crime to romantic folly, from the public institution to the private imagination, was for Shaw an easy shift from effect to cause.
Both Candida and Mrs. And so, as an emphasis on crimes is replaced by an emphasis on follies, and as an emphasis on the ill effects of social problems is replaced by an emphasis on the search for causes within individuals, the audience of the Pleasant Plays is more entertained and made to feel less uneasy. But the strategy simply sets a subtler trap. We are to evolve more through aspiration than through repulsion.
But perhaps it was sufficient that the play got the pot boiling, as far as the commercial theater was concerned. A greater play is Candida I , though it too was sometimes admired for the wrong reasons. It received its first public performance in , with private performances in I and I Morell , confident and successful spokesman for Christian socialism. Candida appears to lend itself well to the character typing of The Quintessence , with Morell as Idealist, Candida as Philistine, and Marchbanks as incipient Realist though they experience inner conflict as well, with the types as warring psychic principles.
Peter Wagner , a leader of the New Apostolic Reformation , has argued that if Christians take dominion over aspects of society, the Earth will experience "peace and prosperity". They often view this as a Roman Catholic doctrine that should be discarded and replaced with an emphasis on prosperity. Prosperity churches place a strong emphasis on the importance of giving. Some services include a teaching time focused on giving and prosperity, including Biblical references to tithing ; and then a sermon on another topic which follows the offering.
Prosperity church leaders often claim a specific blessing can be exchanged for the money being donated to their ministry; some have been reported to instruct worshipers to hold their donations above their heads during the prayer. Congregants in prosperity churches are encouraged to speak positive statements about aspects of their lives that they wish to see improved. These statements, known as positive confessions distinct from confessions of sin , are said to miraculously change aspects of people's lives if spoken with faith.
Jakes , pastor of The Potter's House non-denominational mega-church, has argued in favor of prosperity, rejecting what he sees as the demonization of success.
He views poverty as a barrier to living a Christian life, suggesting that it is easier to make a positive impact on society when one is affluent. While some prosperity churches have a reputation for manipulating and alienating the poor,  many are involved in social programs. Underlying these programs is a theology of empowerment and human flourishing with the goal of releasing people from a "welfare" or "victim" mentality. Kate Bowler, an academic who studies prosperity theology, has criticized such seminars, arguing that though they contain some sound advice the seminars often emphasize the purchase of expensive possessions.
She maintains that home ownership was heavily emphasized in prosperity churches, based on reliance on divine financial intervention that led to unwise choices based on actual financial ability. Most churches in the prosperity movement are non-denominational and independent, though some groups have formed networks.
They argue that leaders attempt to control the lives of adherents by claiming divinely bestowed authority. In the United States, the movement has drawn many followers from the middle class  and is most popular in commuter towns and urban areas. Global Christian Fundamentalism Steve Brouwer, Paul Gifford, and Susan Rose speculate that the movement was fueled by a prevailing disdain for social liberalism in the United States that began in the s.
Tony Lin of the University of Virginia has also compared the teaching to manifest destiny ,  the 19th-century belief that the United States was entitled to the West. Marvin Harris argues that the doctrine's focus on the material world is a symptom of the secularization of American religion.
He sees it as an attempt to fulfill the American Dream by using supernatural power. Prosperity theology has become popular among poor Americans , particularly those who seek personal and social advancement. Simon Coleman developed a theory based on the doctrine's rhetoric and the feeling of belonging it gave parishioners. In a study of the Swedish Word of Life Church, he noted that members felt part of a complex gift-exchange system, giving to God and then awaiting a gift in return either from God directly or through another church member.
Marion Maddox has argued that this message has drawn a significant number of upwardly mobile Australians. In a interview in Christianity Today , Bong Rin Ro of the Asia Graduate School of Theology suggested that the growth in popularity of prosperity theology in South Korea reflects a strong "shamanistic influence". Bong pointed to parallels between the tradition of paying shamans for healing and the prosperity theology's contractual doctrine about giving and blessings. Asia's economic problems, he argued, encouraged the growth of the doctrine in South Korea, though he claims it ignores the poor and needy.
During the interview, he stated that he saw the problem beginning to be reversed, citing calls for renewed faith and other practices. This criticism has focused on his healing and exorcism ministries and his promise of material blessings. Malaysian Christian writer Hwa Yung has defended Cho's healing and exorcism ministries, arguing that he successfully contextualized the Gospel in a culture where shamanism was still prevalent.
However, Hwa criticizes Cho's teaching of earthly blessings for not reflecting a trust in God's daily provision and for their heavy focus on earthly wealth. Historian Carter Lindberg of Boston University has drawn parallels between contemporary prosperity theology and the medieval indulgence trade. Coleman has speculated that modern-day prosperity theology borrows heavily from the New Thought movement, though he admits that the connection is sometimes unclear. Matthew Wilson of Southern Methodist University compares the movement to Black theology owing to its focus on uplifting oppressed groups, though he notes that it differs in its concentration on individual success rather than corporate political change.
Mainstream evangelicalism has consistently opposed prosperity theology as heresy  and prosperity ministries have frequently come into conflict with other Christian groups, including those within the Pentecostal and Charismatic movements. Jesus, Servant and Savior , R. Kent Hughes notes that some 1st-century rabbis portrayed material blessings as a sign of God's favor. He cites Jesus' statement in Mark Other critics of the movement assail promises made by its leaders, arguing that the broad freedom from problems they promise is irresponsible.
For instance, some theologians believe that the life and writings of Paul the Apostle , who is believed to have experienced significant suffering during his ministry, are particularly in conflict with prosperity theology. During his earthly tenure, he spoke time and again about the importance of spiritual wealth and health. When he talked about material wealth, it was usually part of a cautionary tale. In their book Health, Wealth and Happiness , theologians David Jones and Russell Woodbridge characterize the doctrine as poor theology.
He also argues that the proponents of the doctrine misconstrue the atonement, criticizing their teaching that Jesus' death took away poverty as well as sin. He believes that this teaching is drawn from a misunderstanding of Jesus' life and criticizes John Avanzini 's teaching that Jesus was wealthy as a misrepresentation,  noting that Paul often taught Christians to give up their material possessions.
Although he accepts giving as "praiseworthy",  he questions the motives of prosperity theology and criticizes the "Law of Compensation",  which teaches that when Christians give generously, God will give back more in return. Rather, Jones cites Jesus' teaching to "give, hoping for nothing in return.
But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven" KJV. In , the General Council of the Assemblies of God criticized the doctrine of positive confession,  noting examples of negative confessions in the Bible where Biblical figures express fears and doubts that had positive results and contrasting these examples with the focus on positive confessions taught by prosperity theology. The Council argues that the biblical Greek word often translated as "confess" literally translates as "to speak the same thing", and refers to both positive and negative confessions.
God's will should have precedence over the will of man,  including their desires for wealth, and Christians should "recognize the sovereignty of God". Oaks stated that people who believe in "the theology of prosperity" are deceived by riches. He continued by saying that the "possession of wealth or significant income is not a mark of heavenly favor, and their absence is not evidence of heavenly disfavor. Oaks concluded this portion of his sermon by highlighting that the "root of all evil is not money but the love of money.
In a lengthy segment, Oliver focused on what he characterized as the predatory conduct of televangelists who appeal for repeated gifts from people in financial distress or personal crises, and he criticized the very loose requirements for entities to obtain tax exempt status as churches under U. Oliver said that he would ultimately donate any money collected by the church to Doctors Without Borders.
The authors distinguished the prosperity gospel from Max Weber's Protestant ethic , noting that the protestant ethic related prosperity to religiously inspired austerity while the prosperity gospel saw prosperity as the simple result of personal faith. They criticized many aspects of the prosperity gospel, noting particularly the tendency of believers to lack compassion for the poor, since their poverty was seen as a sign that they had not followed the rules and therefore are not loved by God. Notable works that advocate prosperity theology include: Edit this page Read in another language Prosperity theology.
Not to be confused with The Gospel of Wealth. Socioeconomic analysis Edit In the United States, the movement has drawn many followers from the middle class  and is most popular in commuter towns and urban areas. God's Master Key to Prosperity. Christ for the Nations Institute. Your Best Life Now: Roberts, Oral ; Montgomery, G.
God's Formula for Success and Prosperity. Wilkinson, Bruce ; Kopp, David