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Describe the connection issue. SearchWorks Catalog Stanford Libraries. The concise encyclopedia of American radio.
Physical description xxiv, p. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Contributor Sterling, Christopher H. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references p. Nielsen Book Data Publisher's Summary The average American listens to the radio three hours a day.
Key stations would be alerted directly. All other broadcast stations would monitor a designated station in their area. In the event of an emergency, all United States television and FM radio stations were required to stop broadcasting. Upon alert, most AM medium-wave stations shut down.
They would transmit for several minutes and then go off the air, and another station would take over on the same frequency in a "round robin" chain. This was to confuse enemy aircraft who might be navigating using radio direction finding. By law, radio sets manufactured between and had these two frequencies marked by the triangle-in-circle "CD Mark" symbol of Civil Defense.
Although the system by which the CONELRAD process was initiated switching the transmitter on and off was simple, it was prone to numerous false alarms, especially during lightning storms. The switching later became known informally as the "EBS Stress Test" due to many transmitters failing during tests and was eventually discontinued when broadcast technology advanced enough to make it unnecessary.
Beginning January 2, , U.
Several companies marketed special receivers that monitored local broadcast stations, sounding an alarm and automatically deactivating the amateur's transmitter when the broadcast station went off the air. In a Time magazine article featured in the November 14, issue, the author details why the warning system consisting of localized Civil defense sirens and the CONELRAD radio-alert system was "basically unsound".
On May 5, , the Continental Air Defense Command Western Division went to yellow alert for 3 to 10 minutes depending on the alerted state , beginning at The alert was raised by a Canadian radar emplacement which was unaware of an outbound United States B bomber training exercise, due to communication failures. A yellow alert meant "attack expectable", and word was sent to government and civil defense organizations.
In the seven minute window, the city of Oakland, the Sacramento Capitol Building, and others quickly sounded their alert sirens. In contrast, the City of Sacramento civil defense director waited for further confirmation before sounding the citywide siren; ultimately, he never did so.